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If a window has buttons or editable text fields, these are its children. The children can go on to have other children.

To get a picture of how this wrarks, imagine a dialog box with several choices. If you pick choice A Close All Other Windows , the child selector button A passes a mes- sage to the parent that it has tieen selected.

The parent then alerts all other windows that they need to close. These are just simple examples of OOP. Leinecker Pascal has taken root very quick- ly.

Like other computer languages, Pascal is dynamic. It constantly changes to encompass new ideas and techniques. Object-oriented versions are beginning to appear that extend the language from a procedural lan- guage into one that combines the best features of procedural and object- oriented languages.

Pascal borrows ideas freely, just as other languages borrow from Pas- cal. Some people argue that Pascal is restrictive because it frowns upon such poor programming practices as GOTOs.

The GOTO statement en- courages code that is often called spa- ghelli because its logical flow resembles intertwined noodles.

Such programs are difficult to read, to de- bug, and to learn from. Instead, Pascal encourages modu- lar programming, in which you test each procedure and function as you design and code it.

This separates the main program loop from the low-level chunks of code that actually perform the data manipulation.

You can take either a top-down approach in which you design the program without wor- rying about the nitty-gritty details un- til the end or a bottom-up approach, where you start with reusable low-level code that can be joined to make a va- riety of programs.

Terminals that push pilots beyond their limits. Terminals where dogfights are played out with sweaty realism. Terminals where futuristic aircraft designs are modified in just seconds.

And if you have the desire and the aptitude, you could become a part of it. Over careers in all. Plus the chance to ptk up cdlege credits or even an Associate of Applied Science degree in the fully-accredited Community College j4 of the Air Force.

When IBM first began to develop its line of personal computers, these chips were the best available at a reasonable price.

Intel processors were engineered specifically for a productivity-oriented machine. Specialized instructions make text handling and data manipu- lation fast and compact.

Each register has a spe- cial forte; using each register for its designated purpose makes for fast and efficient code.

Pro- grammers can take advantage of some instruc- tions that are a fraction of the size of comparable sets of instructions on other microprocessors.

The newer Intel models, such as the and the , no longer have the memory re- striction of K, and they average a clock speed of 25 megahertz.

The Intel family is getting better, faster, and more powerful. Its dominance in the market underscores its effectiveness.

IBM must have picked the Intel chip by accident. After all, these chips bear little similarity to the mainframes and minicomputers that IBM was used to building.

If you crash an MS-DOS program, you can most likely blame it on the screwball architec- ture of the It requires an and four megabytes of memory.

The was modeled after minicomput- ers, while the Intel processors were modeled after calculator chips. The also has some character- istics of bit machines the higher models, like the and , are full bit processors.

Even the lowest-numbered model chip is capable of multitasking and can access several megabytes of memory with no limitations. It has eight bit data registers and eight bit address registers, with a great number of addressing modes.

The newest processor in the line, the is fully compatible with the , and it features a built-in floating-point math unit, an optimized inte- ger math unit, and two 4K high-speed memory caches.

The SAC bombing competition will decide die issue. Sixteen precise missions, or those you construct with the "Mission Design" feature, will determine who goes home with military aviations most coveted prize — the Curtis E LcMay trophy.

Miss a drink, scnib a miision. The besl in enfcrtainment software. If you think this fea- ture is unnecessary, remember that even the smallest typo can wreck your program.

In the long run, those tech- niques will reward you handsomely. It has all the elements of a full-blown language and performs wonderfully.

If you type FD 50, that command draws a line 50 pixels from where it started. With a few other simple commands, you can also tell the turtle to pick up its pen, change its pen color, and hide itself from view.

That com- mand tells the turtle to go 50 units forward and then turn right 90 de- grees. The manual then suggests hav- ing students type the same command again,.

If this excercise seems trivial, think again. Sequencing is an impor- tant part of our formal thought pro- cesses. It helps us figure out what should happen before it happens.

After the exercise with the square, students soon move on to stars, rec- tangles, and pentagons. Looking ahead and anticipating future events becomes a habit.

Kids begin to ask questions and experiment with ideas of their own. Logo also lends itself well to cre- ative writing.

Logo is extremely versatile. Students can illus- trate the development of an insect, for example. They can list facts on one side of the screen while displaying the insect in its larval stage on the other side.

The factual information can be updated to reflect those different stages of growth. After the entire life cycle has been dis- played, the program is ready to begin once again.

What would beginning program- mers learn from this exercise? They would learn how to coordinate text with graphics and to integrate abstract and visual information.

You can do these exercises with any language, but what makes Logo so special is its ease of use. Drawing is a snap: Putting text on the screen is also simple, as is inviting user interaction.

Because Logo is a structured lan- guage, you can write subroutines that you can use over again. Structured programming fosters logical organization because you must plan each subroutine so it can be used as many times as possible.

It forces you to write flexible procedures — no need to write six subroutines that do almost the same thing. Instead, you can pass or set flags so that a single routine can satisfy the needs of six slightly different circumstances.

It has an important role to play for beginning programmers, whether part of a school curriculum oral home.

Its valuable lessons in critical thinking and logical structures go a long way toward promoting the skills that our kids will need in the next century.

John Kear- ney is a systems and program analyst and freelance writer based in Plymouth, Minne- sota. Programming Environments of the Future Computers are showing up at every turn.

Your microwave, VCR, CD player, and car probably all have computers in them, Do these programmable appliances hold the key to the future of programming?

The VCR bases its actions upon your data in much the same way that a DOS command bases its actions upon the parameters you give it. But if programmable appliances fail to affect general-purpose computer program- ming, metaphors like the onscreen desktop which originated in the Xerox PARC labs have had and will continue to have a profound effect on programming.

Already some languages allow you to coordinate slide shows and sound effects by connecting icons pictorial representations of data objects or devices instead of by typing text commands.

These languages will expand as we begin to use computers with multiple processors. Many applications, notably databases, word processors, and spreadsheets, al- ready include complete programming languages.

And macro programming has be- come an art in itself. Further programming breakthroughs will occur as companies make their applications more flexible and, at the same time, easier to use- Artificial intelligence Al promises to bring us the most user-friendly programming environments.

Al researchers are already working to make software that understands English. A lot of hobbyists did learn to program in BASIC, and some even took the brave step to learn assembly language.

All the good commercial programs were written in machine language, especially the games. Only a few could afford a disk drive.

No one had even heard of a hard drive. Nowadays, people buy comput- ers for a reason. They buy them to play games. We all know that most home computers arc used for games — even if they were bought for other reasons.

Whereas people used to buy one computer to fit all their needs, now ihey buy two separate computers: The game machine is often technologically superior, but people like to make a distinction between the fun-loving box that plays games and the serious box that works in the home or office.

These days you can use a com- puter without knowing how to pro- gram it. A few years ago, a program merely had to be functional and pow- erful.

Now programs have to be easy to use. This de- vice has had more than its fair share of blame for making programs easier to use. The Mac system had the right idea with a one-button mouse.

Then there are the PC mice with three but- tons. We could mount our keyboards on trackballs and — voila! I can just see myself blinking my left eye for selection and the right eye to pick up a menu.

The typical American personal computer programmer writes pro- ductivity applications in C. The typi- cal European programmer writes games in assembly language.

But why is there a difference in pro- grammer styles on the same com- puter in different countries? The BBC computer was signifi- cant for England because it was de- signed to promote computer literacy.

The goal was to agree on a computer that most people could afford so the BBC could offer high-quality computer- instruction TV programs for a large audience.

In addition to introducing a lot of people to computers, the BBC computer had the more interesting ef- fect of teaching people how to pro- gram in machine code.

Built into the very powerful BBC B. This meant that nearly every school kid was writing assembly language programs at an early age. This also explains why there are an awful lot of English computer pro- grammers under 20 when their Amer- ican counterparts are probably in their mid- to lates.

I think its fair to say that 90 per- cent of the people who buy computers now do not program them, whereas a few years ago, it was probably closer to 50 percent.

People are now brave enough to use the technology without having to understand it, and comput- ers are rapidly becoming a useful gad- get on the scale of the VCR or cellular phone.

With computer hardware, RAM prices, and user interfaces im- proving all the time, I would expect that, over the next few years, the next innovation will be speech recognition.

This would make software even easier to use. Similarly, the introduction of HyperCard on the Mac and similar programs on the Amiga make it easier for laypersons to write trivial programs that do what they want.

These graphical programming lan- guages will help close the gap between programmers and users. I look for- ward to the day — not far away — when nontechnical users can make their own arcade-quality videogames, con- trol their house appliances, draw pic- tures and hang them up on the wall, and create video presentations.

Who needs to program a computer anymore? Unfortunate- ly, programming these little jewels can give even the best programmer a mi- graine headache.

With these two programs, you can create custom TSRs that provide online help for any subject imagin- able. It loads your compiled help file into memory so you can call it instantly — anytime you press ALT-H.

Who would want to use this pro- gram? Anyone who needs instant help with PCs, specific software, or proce- dural guidelines. Just compose the ap- propriate text, compile it.

Levy Adventure Development System You find yourself in a dark room, where something smells faintly sour. Suddenly, a scream shatters the still- ness and the door closes behind you.

If mystery and adventure get your juices going and your heart pounds when you hear a sudden scream, this pro- gram is for you.

Adventure Devel- opment System, you can create your own adventure games. All you need is a word processor or text editor, some quiet time to develop ideas, and a fer- tile imagination.

You can also create special scenarios for social, church, and school settings. Your most frequently asked questions can now be answered with- out your having to leaf through a ref- erence book.

All the major topics are covered. The editor commands are readily available in case you forget how to de- lete a line or pause program execution.

The command syntax is listed with all the necessary information, including parameters and optional arguments. ASCII and color-code charts for instant reference.

BASIC programmers, both nov- ice and advanced, will find this tool too good to pass up. But with hard work and long hours, many professional programmers have learned to coax some respectable sounds from the PC.

This package includes an editor and a set of routines written in assem- bly language. First, you create the sounds with the editor. Then when the sounds are fine-tuned, you can save them to disk and add them to your latest creation.

Your ears will be glad you did. Each SharePak disk includes two to four programs plus complete documentation for one low price: Or point and click if you have a mouse.

Change attributes, back up disks, customize parameters, execute DOS commands, and more without ever accessing tie DOS command line.

I want to share in the savings. Rease indicate how many disks of each format you d like: Please indicate the disk size desired: Batch programming, though very simple when compared with C, Pas- cal, or other languages, is a powerful and functional way to solve particular computing problems.

The compact language of batch programming encompasses only a few commands, but it makes use of sound programing concepts. This introduction to batch pro- gramming illustrates a few key com- mands and combines those com- mands into a small program you should find useful.

Starting a New Batch Think of a batch program as a list of commands. You can automate this same se- ries of steps with a batch file that looks something like this: Check your manual for instructions.

All names of batch files must end with the. This sends a signal to DOS telling it how to handle the file.

The first part of the filename is up to you, but for convenience, keep it short and memorable. Some examples are GO.

Batch File Parameters Replaceable parameters bring added power to batch files. A parameter is a supplemental command that follows a program name.

Parameter passing is easy to in- corporate into batch files. BAT example, you would change the middle line: When you execute the batch file by typing w resiime.

If your word processor or any other program supports multiple windows, you might be able to use more parameters.

If no parameter is passed on the command line, the batch file ignores those references. At Your Command A batch program exchanges infor- mation between you and your com- puter; options are presented, instructions are given, and a proce- dure is carried out.

Batch program- ming is nothing more than setting up this exchange. Your DOS manual offers additional detail about these commands and describes a few others, but our discussion here will get you started.

When you in- voke a batch program, its commands are echoed onscreen as your computer executes them. To sup- press the command display, start your program with the command echo off.

The S is only for users of DOS 3. Run word processing program. Display the Games Menu. A must for strategy lovers. Wilmage Challenging word game for players.

Power Poker Addictive strategy game that adds a new dimension to the traditional game of poker. Fun for one player or with friends. Buiger Blostez Have fun in the futuristic fast-food business with this challeng- ing, frantically paced arcade-style game.

Block Out Colorful and delightful strategy game that everyone in the family will want to play. Includes expert and beginner levels. QikSeive Fling those fries I Sling those shakes!

A frenzied arcade-style game for the stout-hearted only. Woimbuiner A game of skill packed with arcade action.

A challenge to the ad- vanced arcade gamer, yet easy enough for beginners to enjoy. Pennsylvania, and Nortti Carolina add appropriate sales tcot lor your slate.

All orders must be paid in U. For delivery oulside the U. You can also use ECHO to print instructions or error messages or to ask the user for additional infor- mation.

Here are some examples. If you want to write a longer line, use a car- riage return before the line reaches the right edge of your screen and continue the line as a new echo statment.

Re- member to precede each line of your message with the ECHO command. Use REM statements to describe certain sections of your batch program.

You could use this command to create a delay when your user needs to change disks or to stop processing when your pro- gram is about to begin a lengthy or po- tentially damaging procedure.

That way you have an opportunity to break out of the batch program. ECHO This will take several minutes. This permits you to write programs that can handle more than one even- tuality.

GOTO is used in conjunction with a label. To create a label, type a co- lon followed by the label name. IF gives your program decision- making power.

You can use it with GOTO to perform a specified task when certain conditions exist. IF can be used in three different forms, but the following example illustrates only one of them: In most cases, at least one of the strings comes from outside the pro- gram in the form of a replaceable pa- rameter.

If the user already knows which program to run. Running them will just print a brief message on your screen.

Then, the third line checks to see whether a parameter was passed when the batch file was execut- ed. If a parameter was passed, the pro- gram jumps to the label that matches the parameter.

If no parameier was passed, the program jumps to the menu section, from which it presents information to help the user make the next decision.

The purpose here is to sec if a parameter was passed and. We achieve this goal by testing for a null, or empty, string.

To circumvent this batch file lim- itation, borrow a lesson from algebra: Add the same thing to both sides of an equation. In the case of line 3, we can add parentheses.

Since GAMES and are not equal, the program moves on to line 4, which also uses the value of the replaceable parameter to jump to the appropriate part of the program.

This prevents your computer from running all of the programs listed in your batch file one after the other.

AT pro- gram sparks your interest in batch files, you can examine the examples in your DOS manual and the batch files that come with commercial software.

You can learn a lot from those examples. Trepidation soon gives way to bravado as you peek inside abandoned tents in the village. A spell weavers power is not for the sheepish.

Or weave straw into gold. And eventually find the means to leave the island itself. Seeking the arcane knowledge possessed by the Great Guilds, accumulated and refined and repeat the notes.

After con- since the dawn of time. Loom is more than a mas- terpiece of fantasy storytelling. No cumbersome keystrokes, text parsing, maze mapping, or inventory manage- ment intrude to break the spell.

We even transport you to the Age of the Great Guilds before you turn on the computer. Where detailed animation, high defini- tion graphics, startling special effects and stirring musical score combine to create a total environ- ment.

Captivating you from the opening scene to the final climax. And your quest for a truly magical fantasy adventure is finally realized. X and Turbo C 1.

Pascal is an integrated program-development system witti editor, formatter, Pascal interpreter, and visible program execution.

The program works as a stand-alone package or with other software. For the tie- ginner, Or. Pascal offers online command help and compre- hensive error checking.

Eco- C88 also offers selectable se- mantic error checking for finding subtle bugs. Lahey provides free technical sup- port, an electronic bulletin board, and newsletters.

There is an unconditional day money- back guarantee. The compiler also features both a small and a large mem- ory model and an integrated command line interface.

The package also offers sensing and support. Mark Williams offers a day money-back guarantee. QB Advi- sor is a hyper ext-based online help system that lets you copy and paste program examples into your oiwn code.

An inte- grated debugging feature is also included with the package. Microsoft offers a day money-back guarantee. Microsoft QuicitC Version 2.

It features an interactive on-disk tutorial, online help with cross-refer- encing, and context-sensitive help.

Microsoft of- fers a day money-back guarantee on QuickC. Microsoft QuiclcPascal Version 1. Quick- Pascal offers Express, a computer-based training sys- tern featuring an online tutorial and hands-on self-paced les- sons.

In addition, Quick Advi- sor supplies online help and a reference system. With Quick- Pascal you can copy and paste prewritten code from Quick Ad- visor into your program.

Also, two levels of menus aid the be- ginner. Full Menus accesses the complete range of Quick- Pascal capabilities for the ex- perienced user.

Another feature of QuickPascai is Smart Editor, which color- codes keywords, user com- ments, user code, or data, allowing the programmer to spot errors easily.

This stand-alone package features a full-screen text editor, a syntax checker, and a source-code generator for interactive screen displays and for automatically main- tained index files.

Also, Person- al Cobol offers an interactive source-level debugging-and- analysis function. The package contains 54 function-key-driven help screens.

In addition, the Power C book includes a step-by-step tutorial and many example programs. In ad- dition to the standard features, this package offers a number of extensions including dynam- ic strings, single- and double- precision floating-point arith- metic, an assembler-level interface, and separate compi- lation of program segments.

Moreover, Prospero Pascal offers a high degree of portability. Digitalk offers a user newsletter and both phone and bulletin board support.

Digitalk offers reduced-price product up- grades and a day money- back warranty. Digitalk offers a day money-back guarantee and reduced-price product up- grades.

Product support in- cludes a user newsletter, technical phone support, and bulletin board support. The package features a full-screen editor, mouse sup- port, and a visual trace for easi- er debugging as your program runs.

Pascal has adopted extensions from the C 4- 4- object-oriented programming language, includ- ing static objects, object con- slants, static methods, con- structors, and destructors.

This package also features an on- line tutorial and a hypertext help system with copy and paste. The interpreter integrates ttie full-screen Editor so tfiat programs are edited and then directly executed.

Also, com- prefiensive diagnostics explain errors and mark ttie source statements where the errors occurred. The package also in- cludes a runtime library, the Watcom video debugger with mouse support and loop opti- mizations for even faster code.

In addition, Watcom C7. Documentation includes on- line help, reference cards, and the C Library, C Language, and Graphics Library references.

It also includes UNDO, which reverses the effect of any command. Solution Sys- tems offers free telephone support and a day money- back guarantee.

Features such as unlim- ited indices, automatic up- dating of all indices, multiple access modes, file and record locking, and full transaction support with commit and roll- back let you take charge of MS Windows.

Sage Software of- fers a day money-back guarantee. Borland s Turbo C or Turbo Pascal. The package fea- tures mouse handling and full keyboard support, pull-down menus and pop-up message boxes, disabled entries and di- vider lines, and shadowed menus to create a 3-D effect.

In addition, the package includes two utility programs: CurEdit and Color Customizer. CurEdit helps you create custom cur- sor icons and associate them with any mouse button or key combination.

Color Customizer lets you specify color via an on- screen palette. This utility enables you to cre- ate horizontal and vertical menu stmctures onscreen.

The package fea- tures expanded memory sup- port that allows editing of larger files, selective-line- editing capability, and en- hanced programmability.

Layout also fea- tures CASE technology, hyper- text databases, and graphical user interfaces. A Layout video- tape is available for S9.

Microsoft Macro Assembler Version 5. The package includes an online tutorial and help file to aid newcomers in debugging their Macro Assem- bler programs.

The package also includes four manuals: The package features multiple overlapping and resizable windows. Object also helps you build your pro- grams from object types such as stacks, linked lists, and vir- tual arrays.

TurboPower offers free technical support. The package features example application sources to be used as skele- tons for new programs. Abrax- as Software offers a day money-back guarantee.

Borland Green Hill Rd. Or try the Analog Edge" with two-way, switchable buttons. Most of the companies with major language products have support areas where you can ask questions about specific products.

Washington Sl Rockville MD voice modem If you have a GEnie account, you can check out the popular programming areas listed below.

To get to these areas, either type the keyword and press the Enter key or type m followed by the page number and the Enter key.

Most book- stores carry these or comparable titles. Box 90, Carmel, IN ; ; Here are several magazines that ca- ter especially to programmers and programming issues.

Box Hightstown, NJ Dr. No complex maneu- vers on the keyboard to call up your information. Just pop-up menus that make it easy to start using Arriba the day you load it on your computer, "Arriba is a strong and flexible package, one that just may meet your information-manage- ment needs head-on.

Arriba helps you manage people, tasks, and events. Organize your thoughts, ideas, notes, schedules and contacts into cohesive action plans.

Cross reference names and phone numbers to task lists, task lists to project folders, project folders to status reports, and more.

If you can remember any part of any note, Arriba can find it. Available ihrough finir dealers naiionwide.

Amtajs-a—Tidcmark of Good Software Corp. However, Moriey Matters automates much of the entry process, saving you from much of the drudgery of old-style debit and credit posting.

While the program is easy to use, you may need help learning some unfamil- iar accounting concepts and terms.

For instance, good will, accrued SUTA, accumulated amortization, eq- uity, and retained earnings are some of the terms that sent me scurrying for an accounting text.

You can set up and maintain fi- nancial records for up to 99 compa- nies with the program. You can also create your own. You can change, add.

Working your way through the menus and submenus is a snap. A tine at the bottom of the screen tells you what your next action should be.

Context-sensitive online help is avail- able with the press of the Fl key. You can track up to different accounts with this program, which should be sufficient for even the larg- est home business.

You distribute in- come and expenses for each business by writing checks and receipts. Each entry can be distributed among up to 20 accounts.

For instance, a crcdit- You can set up SuperTrack cards to help keep track of individual project costs. Then the gas station ex- pense could go into the account called Automobile Expense.

The check-entry screen is similar to a regu- lar checkbook. You enter the date, payee, check number, amount, and a memo on a check window at the bot- tom of the screen.

The upper half of the screen shows checks you have en- tered. On the right arc two columns, each displaying an account number and name.

These arc the accounts where you distribute your expenses. You can scroll through all of the ac- counts using the arrow keys.

A unique feature is. Just place the expense in , then go back later and redistribute it. When you enter a check. Money Matters subtracts the check amount from your bank account and adds it to the distribution account.

For one reason or another, the manufacturing deal with he Chinese floundered - a major blow. As well as losing a nice arrangement for servicing a huge market, Amiga Tech.

But in order to succesfully revitalise the machine, or at least to get back some of the vast outlay, machines had to be properly promoted and on sale for the vital Christmas season.

This meant paying over ihe odds to jump the production queue. Then there was ihe thorny problem of the Escom stores. Would they stock ihe Amiga or not?

To do so may be a disincentive for the independent retailers, who the Amiga badly needs. The Amiga will lx- sold in Kscom shops, but not just yet.

A major surprise was the bundle. Although the price point was initially a little disappointing, nobody could possibly fault the collection of first rale productivity software included.

If you compare it to a similar set up on ihe Mac or PC, it is really a bargain. The bundle pleased almost everyone, and it certainly gives plenty of ammunition lo the dealers who actually have to sell them.

I he Ix-sl bundle ever. That the Amiga lives on is, at least partly, down to the abilities of Amiga Technologies.

What do you think of it so far? Amiga Format asked he industry lour simple questions alwmt the projjievs of Arnica Technologies.

Mosl were impressed that the Amiga bundle was actually on sale. Ramping up production and "pulling together an excellent bundle in just a few months was challenging" its a couple of anonymous respondants said.

They managed to instill a good surge of confidence in a market thai was desperate for good news". John Arundel of Silica expressed the opinions of many when he said he was impressed by "the speed with which they have brought ihe Amiga back to ihe market, and the high level of commitment of their staff".

On a more peple orienaied basis, our own Dale Bradford reckoned John Smith. Find out just what has been going on We know that thev are stepping tip production to meet demands and we expect free How of stock in earlv November.

One anonymous respondent went so far as to say: For the most up to date information, see the "show news" section of the Amiga Format web pages: The next redesign of the chipset could be quite dramatic.

Whether or not the specifications of the AAA chipset are implemented, it seems to be the intention to incorporate the functions of the Paula, Agnus and Denise chips into one.

It would be costly in terms of research, but if successful, the result would basically be an Amiga on a chip - a device which could be much more easily licensed, and would be more attractive to other technology manufacturers.

Additionally, it should be quite a bit faster in operation and, eventually, cheaper to manufacture - circuit boards using the chip would be smaller and cheaper too.

Joint Arundel amplified on this — "The main staf f at Amiga Tech. They understand ihe product and the market better than anyone". Apart from Silica remphasising the need to increase production, most industry gurus that the time was right for some advertising.

Martyn Brown was keen that Amiga Tech should be regaining the confidence of retailers. Dale Bradford came up with a number of single things Amiga Tech should do, including: But what about Amiga Technologies?

I low do thev assess their own achievements so far? General Manager of Amiga Technologies describes their achievements in his own words Overleaf we have an essential Amiga resource for you, with points of contact for each of the current Amiga Technologies offices, and their corresponding area of concern.

Hungary, Croatia, Macedonia and Russia Led by: Belgium and Luxembourg Led by: Dirk de Waeoeneire Address: USA and Canada Led by: Attorney of Law - Suite Eckbolsheim Strasbourg Fax: Spain and Africa except South Africa Led by: Joaquim Ramos Costa Address: Apartado PO Box im.

What have Amiga Technologies been doing since April? Since our press launch in Berlin, we have been extremely busy. How would you asses the performance of the company so far?

Our performance can only be measured by what we achieve. What are the major obstacles you have had to overcome?

How many other computer manufacturers could have achieved so much in so little time? Are you happy with the current distribution deals? Do you think the Amiga will get the High St.

We would be happy if all the High Street chains were to take the Amiga. Are partners still being sought for distribution abroad? We are always happy to speak to new partners who have the same goals - to make the Amiga successful.

Where will all your efforts be concentrated? We do not consider there to be competition from the companies you mention. Our belief is parents would welcome their children having the option of learning via educational software and being creative by the paint and word processing software we include in each A Amiga Magic pack.

By what means can you persuade software developers to continue to support the Amiga? The first hurdle is to show the publishers that all the talking about the Amiga "coming back" is over.

The Amiga A and an Amiga dedicated monitor MS are shipping as you read this, and when we sell 60, Amigas in the UK alone between now and Christmas, publishers will, I believe, port software over to the Amiga.

The reason for this is very simple - publishers will make more money by porting across onto as many platforms as possible.

So, it is in the publishers best interests to write software for as many active platforms as possible. What market do you see this being aimed at?

RISC is certainly under development - unfortunately, the cost is high and has to come down, making the product affordable for the consumer and we are working very hard to make this happen.

Is there any intention to release an Amiga whose performance fits somewhere between the current A and the A? We have looked into this and to be honest we would very much like to introduce an Amiga that sits between the A and AT.

Our resources must be utilised to the full and by investing in the future, Amiga users will certainly benefit. Are there any plans to release an Internet bundle A?

Will Amiga Technologies support development of internet software for the Amiga? I recently saw in Germany a beta version of the.

Our intention is to include support for the Internet next year, This will be included on Workbench. Why do you think the Amiga has survived for so long?

The Amiga has always been special. Our customers, your readers, are second to none and never cease to amaze us.

Amiga users have always taken great delight in convincing PC and Mac owners of the benefits of having a multi- tasking machine.

Amiga users have had "Auto Config" from day one, or as I prefer to call it. We do not believe that there are any other computer manufacturers that have the loyalty of the Amiga - we are, in my opinion, very lucky to have such dedicated users.

Then send them to us, and we will forward them on to computer shops. Send your ideas, suggestions and demos to us at this address: Cinema4D is packed with power-user features that will satisfy even the most demanding users.

Cinema4D provides an easy-to-use multi-tasking editor replete with every conceivable option including window-based realtime interactive modelling, modelling directly in 3D, basic and complex primitives with uncountable variations, easy object manipulation, moveable tool, object and texture lists, definable object hierarchies, optimised versions for A etc.

The Cinema4D animator brings you even closer to the world of "virtual reality", breathing life into objects and scenes. With just a few mouse clicks you will have your objects move realistically through time and space.

If you experience any difficulties obtaining Cinema4D, you can order free by telephoning our order hodinc on , armed wilh your credit or debit card or you can send us a cheque or postal orders.

Order your Zip drive now fo avoid disappointment! TheAlmathera 10 -on W pack of Clh. Disk Magic screenshot on the left , is the ultimiate file and disk management utility for your Amiga.

DiskMAGIC makes every task you perform - from the copying of a file, to the extraction of an archived file, as simple as a clicking on a button!

DiskMAGIC is exceptionally configurable, with the ability to alter window layout, file types, action buttons, fonts, screen mode, archive handling, viewers and more.

With built-in Forms Designer, a beautiful user interface, simple-to-use relations, versatile sorting, reporting and searching features and speed thai defies belief.

Twist 2 is the only Amiga database that will grow with you. A hard disk is recommended. Termite is so easy to use that even a first time telecommunicator will feel at home.

Termite is compatible with all Amigas running WB2 or higher with 1MB or more of free memory and all modems. Cinema4D also includes a comprehensive hie conversion utility to allow full import of your current objects.

Alternatively, you can send us a cheque or postal orders, made out to HiSoft. All prices include VAT. Bui lor computer fanzines, diskmags seem the best option hy far.

Paper Ian zincs originated when people lelt they liad o hit hack against the establishment. The written word seemed more powerful and cheap home-produced magazines were easily distributed to anybody who wanted to read them.

Now every football club has their own. Wapnnne communicates with other "secners" and has strong opinions - in l. Programming diskmags are set up by programmers with an affection for a certain programming language.

Other diskmagazines are set up by lame seekers people who want to make a name lor themselves and so become an Kditor to achieve it.

Q Their must be some things you The real reason was that 1 thought hate, though? Q Do you find being an editor Q HTiat are the most common difficult at ail?

I siniph delete them mercilesslv I believe in qualitv articles. A magazine with a poor not quantity. Do you get a lot of feedback?

Q So what would you say is the most important part of a diskzine - Q Do you have any tips for anybody the articles, the music, graphics, or wishing to set up their own diskzine?

The process of selecting articles is a bit cumbersome, though. Setting up any publication, never mind a diskmag, can be a difficult process.

DUTR e make you as big as Future Publishing is today, but you will find a way of making yourself heard and have fun.

Some cover programming, some are about games and some diverse into altogether new dimensions, such as Star Trek diskmags. This on its own gives you an idea of what diskmags are all about.

Jackie a subject that interests you. After all, merely covering a subject lhat has been tackled very competently in another publication is not going to gain you as many readers than if you created a different one and showed enthusiasm for the subject.

You will find lhat readers will send you contributions, which are difficult to plan beforehand in a flatplan. Inifi kit ii ll hit 1 Nu lKl M 3.

Organiser and Displayer However, diskzines, by their very nature, smaller and more personal readership are in a beller position to offer readers support than a commercial magazine.

Just answering reader queries by return post is mighty impressive, even if it does slight K increase an alreadv heftv workload.

And that brings us to another point. Diskzines tend to have hundreds of mite lengthy articles, so I would advise you to pester your friends into contributing.

Or make a plea for writers, artists and musicians by placing adverts in computer stores, in classified ads, or, even better, approach talented people direct.

In return give them a free copy of your diskzine and maybe a free advert. Once you have got some "staff" together you can then delegate jobs - giving music work to the musicians, programming work to the programmers, art work to the artists, and so on and so forth.

When articles begin to pour in, you have to select the best ones and edit them into shape. You need to make sure everything is easy to read, spelt correctly and not libellous.

Just keep an open mind. The story may have been well written, but just not Magnum v1. In this case, you could commission ihe writer to pen the article vou want.

However, commissioning people can often cause a few extra problems. Your writers may decide not to send you anything until a week after you intended the magazine to go out.

One area you should be particularly careful about is accepting a series of tutorials from somebody. These are from Belinda Bye. If something crops up lor the writer and he decides not to continue the series, not only have von goi an unfinished set of articles, hut a lot ol frustration from readcis who have been closely following it.

The last thing to consider is whether or not to earn ads. For example, iraprvine leLs people advertise lor pen pals. The final step is to put everything together - the words, pictures, music and a user-friendly method of control.

Create I tlatplan and work dmrU in it. Be determined and rinvrgivr in. It vou still hit a brick wall every month. Pf Wbfk out a routine. You need some method of being able to put your words to screen, then spell- check them and have l he flexibility to easily change things.

All you need an art package for is knocking up the odd graphic or two. Disk copier - Absolutely essential if you are distributing the package yourself.

Music package - Music is definitch essential on a diskmag. One of these is Magnetic Paget, a shareware release that consists of three programs - an Editor to create articles , an Organiser for assembling articles into a Vine and a Displayer to display the mag.

Ii docs everything vou need a diskmag to do, combining text, graphics and sound, and comes very highly recommended.

The package comes with complete instructions, although the options open to anvbodv reading vour mag are quite limited - it only offers options to access the index, exil and move around the screen.

Dish Mag Creator is a bit more flexible, reviewed as recentlv as AF7-t. And it has every option you can think of, including a print option in case people want to print your articles.

As for hardware, a second disk drive is pretty much essential in order to save tedious disk swapping. A printer could also come in handy for printing disk lain- K ami writing letters.

Tlie gannrs on the Assavsins CD Volume 2 are Ml repealed from the firsi CD- bur are all new games with lull instructions for he games accessed from he menu system.

Weird Science arc proud lo announce that the networking of the CDM to an Amiga is about to change hevond all recognition, with emphasis purely on speed and ease of use.

Network CD 2 provides a ivew easy one button set-up of any of the 1Mb on both the CD3S and the Amiga Semct now runs at far higher speeds than ever before and includes keyboard and mouM ermiljiion from the Amiga.

Twin ExpKfl can now be controlled by Directory Opus 4. These are brand new full versions, in attractive durable library boxes with colour manual and you are under no obligation to make any further purchases.

Versions of Maths and English are available on 3. Acorn, Apple Mac and Commodore Amiga. Ever fell thai he Amiga should still Ik- al he forefront of video games technology like i used to be?

Ever felt diat die energy some PC game developers are expending on the exploitation of PC hardware should have gone into the Amiga when die A 1 first appeared?

Lemmings, Sensi-Sorrer and Super Skidmarks stand out as shining examples. Increasingly, though, the Amiga is losing out. Not through the loss of developers - a good few of ihem will be back after enormous Christinas losses on their balance shee - but through the restraint of processor power.

Think about the following three games, released when the A was still at its zenith: Each one pushed the processor to its limit.

They play perceptibly faster so that die motion not only feels more realistic, but enhances the immersive atmosphere of the environments the game plays in.

Especially in the realm of 3D, which just happens to be the area where the most exciting games are evolving; Guardian, Fears, Uoom, Gunship , ZeewolJ2, Coala and Alien Breed 3D to name the most important To be fully effective, these games need grunt.

But they also need to be made friendly and customisable enough lo enable owners of underpowered Ami gas to play them too. Fears requires a and the AGA chipset.

In other words, a bare A It Fed up with being stuck in the slow lane when it comes to Amiga games? Join Steve McGill as he takes a speculative look at current Amiga games and delves into the world of expansions, upgrades and accelerators.

Terrific game in its present incarnation. It will run faster still if an accelerator of some kind is fitted. Close on the same speed could be achieved on a standard AI if you switched off the textures and reduced the screen size.

Goala is exciting for several reasons. The king pin bruiser of the accelerator set. If Coala was programmed with this baby In mind, there would be texture mapped vehicles aplenty.

The Turbo turns your A into a formidable games machine. Breed 3D could be turned into a Doom-beater with this card.

Would run a texture mapped version of F1 GP no problem. How about it Sir Geoff Crammond? Probably the best value of all accelerators mentioned here.

Graphic detail could be traded off against speed depending on the processor used. The main one being the potential and example it oilers to games taking place in a 3D accelerated environment.

It also offers many features that anyone in possession of a processor and above can benefit from and take advantage of.

There are nine in all: Five of these are mere toggles: The other four are scaled and are worth more discussion. Vision - probably effects the running speed of the game the most.

The maximum distance of your sight is a setting of On an unexpanded the frame rate drops drastically, but the game looks better. World Detail - on a scale of , affects the number of trees, buildings, and roads.

Again, down lo user preference and processor installed. The more detail, the better the world looks. Object Detail - another scale.

Obviously, the more real a vehicle looks, the more satisfaction gained from blowing it up or shooting it down. The last of die options is Time Compression.

Here, the player can choose to enable slow motion, real time, or fast motion. Amiga Technologies have their own over- priced version of the type of glasses needed.

With proper driver support. Coala would be a virtual reality winner. In all, Uxila offers a tremendous amount of scope for customisation and optimisation.

Something thai games developers have mostly ignored with the Amiga, yet pay very close attention to on the Mac and PC platforms.

If you own an accelerated Amiga, let software houses like Team 1 7. Around hall oi A owners own expansions of some kind or other.

The more people who upgrade, the more viable and attractive the market appears to developers. All this could happen with an accelerated Amiga. The FPU relieves the processor from maths intensive functions and frees it up to do other less boring things instead - like take care of the game.

Texture maps are maths intensive. They could be taken care of by the FPU while a decent running speed for the game was maintained.

It would open up a previously unexploited avenue of Amiga gaming and provide a better return on investment for developers than the PC market is currently yielding.

If PC games K. Breed 3D could easily be a Marathon beater. Go to it Team More games should offer this.

SimpK write vour answers m these lour questions mi the hack ol. Which of the following is twt a tvpe of helicopter?

How many different types of helicopter can you pilot in the game CoaUit a 1 b 3 c 4 3. What type of processor is used in the Apollo ?

What do the initials FPU stand for? In a nutshell, a fast spreadsheet, at a friendly price and with a proven track record! Using TurboCalc, vou can calculate and recalculate entire spreadsheets in seconds.

And then, by selecting from a range of 2D or 3D styles, view your data as charts. And with its unequalled support for third party graphics cards, you can create fabulous images no matter what Amiga you use.

There are so many helpful features, like Digi9ense for example — it knows what I want to type and helps me type it! Time-saving features like that make all the difference.

And, the wide range of automated data entry facilities ensures that you type as little as possible. With Datastore, storing information has never been this easy.

On-line AmigaGuide help whenever you need. Imagine, an organiser which looks and works just like the real thing! Now, I never forget birthdays or bills, and I really plan my time effectively.

I always seemed to end up owing more than I had left over. In fact, my finances were a bit of a muddle and a lot of hassle. But not anymore, now that I use Money Matters.

I know exactly what I owe, I am able to make sound financial decisions and plan for the future. Best of all, the savings in bank and credit card charges covered the cost of Money Matters in just a few months!

Monday to Friday 9. Megadnvo and Game Gear. Amiga titles are still steadily outselling PC titles. Many are quietly ruing the day they quit the Amiga.

The PC market is inhabited by a completely different kind of consumer than the Amiga. Only a very small percentage are interested in games.

The sooner developers realise this and start developing Amiga games like Coala and Alien Breed 3D, games that makes use of extra memory and accelerator cards, the better.

Amiga users, on the whole, are more clued up than their PC brethren. If more developers take note of this, rather than what their competitors are doing, the gaming world will be a happier place.

Rest assured, Amiga gamers will reward them. Now we can play it injhelj; Ha. Only the very best, most playable and original games are awarded an AF Gold -the most highly prized rating there is.

Good games which are worth buying, especially if you have a special interest in a game type. Average releases with somewhat limited gameplay and appeal.

Games in this category tend to be flawed. Below average games which are unlikely to impress your mates or your wallet.

Also 3D racing game Leading Lap. Top fun for Fat Controllers. Steve McGill The absolute pits. Thomas the Tank Engine. With its 50MH2 and MMl.

They all have one thing in common. They promote rampant individualism and outrageous aggression, while at the same time encouraging people to blow up and kill their friends.

You control a little geezer who has to rid a maze of the blocks standing between him and his opponents. He does this by blowing them up with a bomb.

Part of the secret of winning and killing the others lies in using the power-ups to best advantage. Hailed as an F1GP beater, the races take place not only on the race track, but also on normal roads both city- and country-based.

There are the design of the race tracks will also go ing to be over 80 screens enable astute drivers to cash in on the worth of bombing action.

One to vulnerability of the computer- look forward to- controlled opponents. By driving in front of them, the player can force the cars to spin out and crash.

Owners of accelerated Amigas will find that they can turn on extra graphical detail. Another plus in our book. Targeting lying targets with Hellfires is easy.

Look to tho left. There are four corners of the world that can be fought in. Select where you wan! Middle America is cultured.

Little cover in the Middle East Imagine being given the freedom to fight for the forces of democracy against tyranny or the forces of tyranny against democracy Imagine being given one of the most sophisticated battle helicopters known to military science to achieve this ig noble aim.

Imagine no longer, Coala is here. Coala is a helicopter flight sim with a difference. Traditional flight stms rely on all manner of technical frippery and detail to maintain their authenticity and sense of realism.

Coala ignores all that. Instead, Coala relies on the credibility and realism of the battlefield. Taking place within the confines of a three dimensional, finite, wraparound world, each combat mission and scenario witnesses the forces of the East pitched against the forces of the West.

As is to be expected of a pseudo flight sim, Coala takes place within a three dimensional world. The player starts the game at a Western base within the cockpit of a battle copter; there are four different types to be flown in all.

Controls are simple and easily picked up. All that needs to be done to take to the air is to give the engine enough collective to overcome gravity.

The chopper will take off and the player can start moving about. The easiest method of controlling the chopper requires use of the mouse.

Mouse control quickly becomes intuitive and offers the unrestrictive freedom of analogue responsiveness. By pressing the right mouse button and holding it down, an unrestricted three dimensional view can be taken.

That is, the chopper continues on its path and the view simulates the pilot looking around him. This is particularly useful when lining up targets.

Rather than having to keep the whole chopper in line, the pilot only really needs to get close to the target. Tricky to use at first, it soon becomes a cake walk.

For there is no such thing as an unfair advantage in war. Each of the missions and scenarios has a life of its own. If the player chooses to take no part, the battle will still be decided by the computer participants fighting each other.

Part of the strength and believability of Coala belongs to the internal dynamics of the battlefield and the artificial intelligence of the battlefields protagonists.

If desired, this artificial intelligence can be observed by choosing to view any of the planes, choppers, tanks, trucks, etc.

The beauty of the views is the ability to look all around the chosen vehicle in a full degree, three dimensional pan.

This flexibility can also give the discerning player an insight into the tactics adopted by adversaries, so that more effective counter measures can be taken when going head-to-head.

No protection in Antarctic! Choose from any vehicle. Power- challenged Amigas like the and need a with 2Mb minimum to run Coala.

A owners will find that some Fast memory is desirable to avoid a jerky effect. Luckily, the programmers have included an option screen whereby features such as ground and object detail can be set high to low on a scale of 1 to Other processor- hungry cosmetics, such as horizon detail and viewing distance, are also customisable - so a standard vanilla A runs Coala satisfactorily, though not brilliantly.

The answer has to be yes, but with some reservations. The game, despite some excellent features, looks old-fashioned - no texture maps and a limited palette.

The terrain is flat - no mountains or hills to hide behind. Despite that, I would still buy Coala. You can create your own fully customisable "What if?

It makes intelligent use of the Amiga hardware and it enables you to pit your wits against the artificial intelligence routines of the programmers.

Hopefully, the commercial success that the game deserves will encourage the programmers to inject more cohesion and believability into the package for Coala 2.

O CtAUt This is your chopper. Gives a wider field of vision than the cockpit. Here a Western F15 takes out a Frogfoot with a sidewinder.

Transport trucks pass each other on the right-hand side. This Floggor is jusl about to flog Western A10 Warlhog. Shooting civilians on the battlefield is a hazard.

Knowing that reinforcements are on the way improves morale. Even for a flight sim. Sound 8 out of 10 Surprisingly good.

Addiction 8 out of 10 Surprisingly addictive. May flag after a couple of weeks, though. If paying by cheque please make payable to: Ill lit I US.

Newfl Stylus Colour lis t J Every universe comes complete with a desk. An alarm clock keeps you punctual. A notepad keeps your memos.

And a calculator keeps your accountant honest. How to communicate with a new universe. With geoWrite, you can rearrange your written words. Move blocks of copy.

And even display your text in fonts of different styles and sizes, right on the screen. With geoPaint, you become a Michelangelo with a mouse. Sketching and painting with all kinds of colors, textures and patterns.

You can invert, mirror and rotate images. Insert them into your geoWrite documents. Finding your way through the universe.

The most difficult thing about a new universe is finding your way around. But with GEOS, you only need to remember two things: When GEOS offers you options, you just point to your answers and click your mouse or joystick.

You want to draw? You want to write? You want to fill in that obtuse rhomboid with an air- brushed geometric pattern in a lighter shade of pink?

And in case you ever do make a mistake, GEOS backs you up with an "Undo" feature that undoes the very last command you entered.

So zip down to your nearest software dealer. Tell him you want to explore the new universe in your Commodore. The name is universally known.

Toorden call exl. Allow six ivetiks for dolivtry. The syntax for a directory is: N 32,25 32,25 ,1 ,2 ,2 48,4, , 82,1 , , 0r0, 1 ,32 32,1 THEN 3,, 3,, 33, 00, 42, ,12 ,20 60, ,96 ,22 0,0,0, ,,2 50, PRINT" 32, 32, ,,0 ,,2 ,,1 ,48,3, ,16,24 ,32,18 ,32,18 ,,2 0,0,0, 55,32, ,32,16 ERROR ,, ,, ,, 40,4, 65,25 76,72 7, 9, 6, 51 ,96 0,0,0 ,2 5, IN DATA!

Computers— C- C load and run — One simple command can be used to toad a CI 28 program from disk and to run it automatically: RUN "programname" This does everything you need.

Hottes Danbury, CT C joystick ports— The C-1 28 boasts a stick appearance, but its designers overlooked at least one small detail. The accessory is a Y cable that allows you to plug two joysticks into a single port on an Atari video game.

When the Y cable is plugged into the C, the dongle can easily be inserted itito eidier of its female connectors. MIDS has a wonderiul but undotuniciUed feature: You can use it to replace char- acters in one string with those from ancjther!

I redefine that key to give mc something more valuable — an instantaneous reading of the amount of remaining memory. Doing the magic is simple: ESC C does twt cancel Quote mode, as stated in the manual.

Be sure you use the proper technique with all escape se- quences—first you press and release tJie tlSC key, and then you press the othei s.

If the final result is zero, the key is depressed, or in the column position. If the final result is , the.

You can clear all tab stops by pressing and releasing the ESC key, then pressing and releasing Z. You can restore the default tab stops by using ESC Y in the way described above.

You can set or clear a tab stop by moving your cursor to the desired position and pressing CTRL-X or the shifted tab key.

Try changing the value of A. Matt Woodring Cordell, OK C Magic Boot — This program modifies any disk so that the , when turned on or reset in mode, will auto- matically run the first Basic program in its directory.

Here is how to cast the spell: Fonnat a disk, then save the Target Progiani as the first program on it. This becomes the Target Disk. Just be sure the Target Program is tlie first one you save.

Remove the Target Disk and replace it with one con- taining the Magic Boot program. Load Magic Boot, but do not run it at this time. Put tlie Target Disk back into your drive; then run Magic Boot.

The drive will spin, and your Target Disk will be converted. Test the conversion by pressing the reset button. If all is well, the Target Program will automatically load and run.

Magic Bool should work on any Conunodore disk drive when used with the C in mode. The program works because, when the computer is turned on or reset in mode, it checks the disk for the let- ters "CBM" at the start of track 1, sector 0.

The accompanying program illustrates many of its features and is most instructive to work widt. It simulates a report for a simple checkbook program.

Try different letvglhs of input in the other areas, as well. Notice how the tmtput lines up on your screen and how it changes as your input changes.

The example demonstrates, among other thinp, how ytm can assign a variable name to a format, then use the format anjwhere else in the program.

You need a comma, like this: To activate the stop key while avoiding other errors, insert this before the Resume statement: If you pin your string variables inside paren dieses, your troubles should vanish like magic.

An- other good solution is to operate on the variables before using them. Any of these should work: And when it comes to programs, no one brings you a wider range of helpful projects and programs you can put to use immediately for education, home and business appli- cations, managing your home finances,.

Y to, I want to start saving and add to my computing enjoyment every month! The NOT operator inverts each bit in a binary number.

For example, is inverted to Also, in a RND operation page 80 , only a nonnegative arguinent is a dummy. Any positive argument returns the next element of the current pseudo-random sequence.

A argument reseeds the random number generator from the jiffy clock. A negative argument reseeds the generator using the value of the argument.

Normally, a program seeds the generator once with a nonpositive argument and uses a positive argument thereafter. Following are two examples that demonstrate how the random number generator operates.

The first statement results in the same sequence each time it is run: Traveling disk drives— Your or , like any disk drive, is sensitive to movement.

First and foremost, insert into the drive an old disk or the cardboard head protector that came with the drive and close the door. This will protect the fragile head alignment.

Then, place the drive in its original box with the styrofoam packing, or surround it with styrofoam "pop- corn" in another box. If you move the drive often, you could build a special padded carrying case for it.

Just get one with a phono input connector that matches the plug on the serial audio output wire, and plug it in. Jon Medek JonMedek, an assistant producer far Electronic Arts, is particularly interested in the music syntliesis and editing potential of computers.

To redefine the keys, enter the following statements in immediate mode or add them near the end of the boot program: S Super Cycle S Scenery Disks 6 Pack Spy vs.

Desk Pak , Font Pack ,. Centipede Dig Dug Jungle Hunt.. Wallace has written software for both the C-! He is the co-author of Ultra Ht-Res Graphics.

A bizarre dude — To get C Basic programs up and running faster, use the following format for ihe Save statement: To rename an existing DUDE file, type in: He currently programs on a C and an Amiga, Easy ellipses— R.

The trigonometric calculations are performed only once, outside the drawing loop. It draws a polygon with a Tdegree change in direction at each vertex.

Because the sides of the polygon are so short and each angle so large, the result appears as a rough ellipse. The shape of the ellipse is determined by the horizontal and vertical radii xr and yr, respectively , so by varying tliese values, you can make the curve appear more — or less — circular.

INT funciion to calculate them. However, because INT converts negative as well as positive fractions to tlic next lower integer for instance, - 1.

The following subroutine corrects this problem, making negative and positive values round to the nearest integer, which is what you normally need: Bjornsen, appealed to me to modify the program to work on Commodore computers.

So, I converted it to run flawlessly on any model Commodore. What sets this sorter apart from others is that you, not the computer, assign the priorities to the items within a list.

You can use the program to quickly establish a hierarchy of items whose names contain any combination of characters, numbers and graphics symbols.

The program instantly displays how many times you gave a selected item priority over another. The only problem is that if the disk to be copied was formatted on one of certain third- party disk drives, your might not be able to read it.

To perform this feat, load a document into RUN Script 2. Then enter a period followed by a space and press return. Finally, place the cursor at the Ijeginningof the document, hold down the F2 key and watch what happens!

The space after tlie period prevents the program from detecting decimal points within numbers. Of course, for this trick to work, you must insert a space at the end of a paragraph between the period and the return.

Now totally up- dated with more than features and options! Great for creating adven- ture games! Such information can also be helpful with the mortgage you have, by revealing how much the loan is really costing you and liow you might be able to save on it.

Loan Analysis will tell you everything you need lo know con- cerning the payments, interest rate and repayment period on a mort- gage. It will also provide a nionihby- month amortization schedule for the life of the loan, which, in addition to the items mentioned above, will in- clude your cumulative in teres i, cu- mulative equity and a breakdown of your montlily payments into interest and principal portions.

Ac the end of every year, the program will calcu- late the amount of interest you paid, which is important for tax purposes, and the amount of equity you built up for that year.

Loan Analysis will work on any fully amortized loan for which inter- est is calculated on the remaining bal- ance. This covers just about all loans diat are eurrendy offered by llnancial institutions.

Enter these figures when the program asks for them, being sure not to include any com- mas. Then a display will appear that includes the loan amount, interest rate, monthly payment and total cost of the loan over its life span.

These calculations are done in Fast mode. Then tlie program will ask if you want to see an amortization table. For tliis example, press Y.

The screen will clear and an amortization table for the first 12 months of the loan will be cal- culated and dis] layed. Note that, for quite a few years, the interest portion of the payment greatly exceeds the eq- uity portion.

Loan Analysis 1 28 is designed to be used with an column RGB monitor or a 40column monitor with one of the special cables being offered by third-party vendors.

A Money Saver You might want to use the amorti- zaUon table to determine how to re- pay your loan sooner. Make out a check for that payment as usual, then check the amortisation table to sec wiial the equity portion of payment number 6 is.

Make out a separate check in that amount, and print on the back of the check, "To be used toward principal only. Imh Amljsis progrm. Some have you enter the first letter of the option, such as P for print, S for search or Q for quit.

Others number the options and ask you to enter the number of your choice. For most Basic programmers, these two methods liavc become stand- bys.

A sliglnly more sophisticated ap- proach uses a joystick- or mouse-con- trolled arrow to point to the option, but this approach has to be written in inachine language to make the arrow travel snioothly and quickly around the screen.

A third method, possible to code in Basic with utily a litde more effort than the letter and number systems, is the moving highlight.

Wlien the higlilight covers the option you want, you press the return key to send execution to that routine. Altliough the moving-highlight method requires as many or more keystrokes for making a selection as Uic first-letter method, it turns out tc be faster especially for non typists , because you always press the same key to make a choice.

Another advan- tage of this approach is that it gives programs a polished, professional appearance. As the menu is initially dis- played, the first option on the left appears in reverse lettering, and the rest are in normal lettering.

This makes the first option look high- lighted. What actually happens when the highlight "appears" to move is that the two options involved are rewrit- ten—die one that was originally in reverse lettering is rewritten in nor- mal lettering, and vice versa.

Because the rewriting happens so quickly, it looks like the highlight changes po- sition. To make the whole sy. Again, if it does, the options are re- written and execution goes to the ap- propriate routine.

If it is, execution branches to that part of the program named in the menu option that was highlighted when you pressed return. Thus, the program ignores all keystrokes other than cursor-right, cursor-left and return.

An advantage to using multi- ple Get routines is diat they enable you to hold down the cursor keys and rap- idly cycle thrtmgh the various menu choices in either direction.

Pull-Down Menus You can create pull-down sub- menus by defining a small screen win- dow in the area directly below a main- menu choice, then listing the options in a column within the window.

To sec an example of a pull-down menu, select option 4 in the main menu of the demonstration program. The code for this submenu resides in lines of the lisdng.

In- stead of getting a keystroke and check- ing to see if it was a cursor key, you check the status of the reserved vari- able— JO Y l orJOY 2 , depending on which port the joystick is using.

A value of 3 means the stick has been moved to the right, and a value of 7 indicates a move to the left. A value of or higher means the fire- button — which has the same function as the return key — has been pressed.

If you wanted to allow botli keyboard and Joystick selection, you certainly could combine both methods. BoK Jersey Shore. Free shippBirig on prepaid cash orders witnin the continenlat U.

A C Mouso. Comp Science Kit 15 75 N-Filc 10 2 49 Fl. Filo25Lock 10 95 Fl. NFilo50 Mini 10 95 Fl. As a profrramming challenge, I also avoided the Peeks and Pokes I normally use.

Then a screen ap- pears, displaying two windows and the progiam instructions. Press a number on the numeric keypad. To clear the window, press the F5 key.

If you make a mistake entering a number, hit the F5 key and then Listing 1. As the right window Fdls with figures, they scroll vertically out of the window, with the most recent entries remain- ing in view.

To total a column of figures, press the return key after the last entry. To multiply two numbers, press the Fl key after the first entry, then the re- turn key after the second.

The sequence for divi- sion is similar, except you press F3 in- stead of Fl. The program retains the result of an operation to use in the next.

How did 1 like the new Basic 7. I was really impressed. It could use mul- tiple memory keys and a percent key, for instance.

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Send mail order with payment to: This disk drive is fully compati- ble with the Commodore 64" computer and direclly replaces the Commodore Disk Drive.

The Department of Labor estimates that computer service jobs will actuafly double in the next ten years-a faster growth rate than for any other occupation.

Total systems training No computer stands alone. And if you want to learn to service and repair computers, you have to understand computer systems.

The Computer has two operating speeds: Read detailed descriptions of each lesson, each experiment you perform. So, I wrote Label Copy to fill llie gap.

Label Copy will print up to five lines on a label for a specified num- ber of ] rints. Printing some test labels will get the text alignment right.

If you say every- thing is okay, the labels will begin printing with the current label num- ber displayed on the screen. Vou can save your label text on disk if you intend to reuse it.

When the prompt appears for a "save name," use a short one that will remind you of the text. You can use a save name only once.

Label Copy includes defaults for some of the text parameters. To cus- tomize the program to your own needs, you can easily change these defaults by changing the poked char- acters.

For example, line 50 pokes screen location widi 14 if you type N for no instructions. A 25 would mean Y for yes. Label Copy could be itsed for much more than return adtlress labels.

Some other applications might in- clude name tags, owner tags for lug- gage, books or record albums and ID tags for appliances. All you need is a screwdriver and about an liourot your time.

Noknowletfgeot electronics is necessary. Search function finds lost programs quickly. Gel your wares organized. Ihij ecJven- tufe providfri whoreaome Tun for adventurers o1 all ages.

Haunted House, and more Cherry BanEe Ground, Wa. PS Speed-Script Utilizer The Utiliier works along with your copy ot the popular word processor, Speedscrlpt The Utilizer allows you to print multiple copies of your documents unattended.

This program will work with any word processor that has sequential hie op- tions. Excellent sound and text rewards.

Allows vocabulary words with detj- nitions A fast action game that takes only minutes to play but requires perfection in Spelling. POKE , 8: All prices discounled lor cnsh or check.

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I andy sizes, too. Envelope Maker is a Basic program that uses your primer to create envel- o[ es in a con [lie of common size. It takes regular After the printer is done, you cut on the dotted lines, fold and fas- ten with ia e or a hit of glue.

The procedure is fast and easy, the envel- opes are professional looking and your postman will love them. To use Envelope Maker, type in the program in ListiiTg 1 and save it he- fore you run it.

The progiam expects four lines of return address, but I used only three, so the last Data state- ment specifies an empty string. Next, the program asks if you want to use the defatdt return address.

If you respond Y, for yes, F. If you answer N, it asks for up to four lines of return addiess, one line at a time. To skip part of an address, press the return key when the prompt for that line appears.

Now you mtisl enter the address of the person lo whom you arc sending the letter. Type in the address line. If you enter Y, the lines will be centered in rela- tion to each other.

Border inkvfeii 25 22 Graph Gillerla-Ollp Inkwell? All products will be shipped immediately Add S2. In either case, the address is iouhle spaced.

Creating an Envelope Willi the foiniiUling clone, make sure ilie pajjcr in your printer is set ai the top of a new page and press any key to print the envelope.

When output is complete, F. If yovi answer Y, the progi am will loop back to prompt for more address lines. If you answer N, the program will etui.

If you want to change either of these parameters, answer N and run the program again. To assemble the envelope, cut along the outside lines, then fold along the inside lines.

First foki in the little side flaps, then fold up the hot- loni. Fasten with glue or lape I use a ghie stick, available at most oftice sup- ply stores.

Finally, insert your letter and fold and fasten the main Ilap. Cttstomized Input Routine As an extra beiietlt.

Envelope Mak- er contains a short machine language subroutine you can include in your own programs. Because of the second excep- tion, it inputs a value for only one string variable at a time.

To use the subroutine, your pro- gram must first poke it into memory. Envelope Maker does this in lines and You shouki include these lines in your own program, along with the Data statements numbered through 7.

Envelope Maker pokes ihe subrou- tine into RAM starling at location 49 1 52, but you can move it anywhere you like by changing the value as- signed to the variable SUli on line The subroutine is invoked with a SYS statement ibai also specifies the name of the variable to be input.

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The appearance of the opening displays can will or lose an audience. You can easily adapt the menu to any program you might develop.

These two pro- grams are designed to go at the begin- ning of your program listing. I set u] Master Menus fora maximum of seven menu choices, to he selected hy keys 1 In line , insert a ;i4characier message — perhaps instructions for choosing from the menu — that will scroll continuously across the screen.

The periods in the lines indicate where to enter the characters. Lines hold the instruc- tions for branching to. Change diese locations to match your program.

Next, type in and save Master Menus Listing 2. Add Master Menus to your pro- grams. Your opening menus should then be winners!

S bMlTii Listing 1. GOTO1 34 5: Remember those mysterious sounding coded tone signals that baffled you? Our short-wave listener cartridge, the "SWL", will bring that data from your radio right to the video screen.

ISSfE c From p. I discovered that this is the only combi- nation that produces an error menage when listed. The other letter i of the dpha- bet produce Basic keywords.

Have I discov- ered some secret code, or is there some mundane explanation? Normally, Basic knows when a partic- ular value is a keyword and when ii is a keystroke, but inside a RKM statement, it forgets.

As for the usefulness of the effect, you could also use it as a secret code that could only be read after lyping it into a REM statement and listing it.

Haio can I make my printer print what I type onto ihe screen? Here is a simple routine to make your ccmiputer plus printer act like a typewriter and send everytbiiig you type to both your printer and the screen.

To quit, press the key, 10 OPEN. Do you know of wnv wny to get some- thing printed with both upper- ami lower- ra. To output text o a Conunodnre serial bus printer, such as the 1.

I have been unable to determine hmo — or if it is even possible — lo print out the run of a program on my Commodore printer.

Hmmm, the is a disk drive. We can do it both ways. This is one of tliose rare times when theCMD comniantl is es. To dump a program rini to paper.

Start the program this way: GOTO where line is the first line in the program. When you are done, type: While your program is running, what- ever would normally go to the screen will now go instead to the device spec- ified in the Open statement for file 4— in this ca.

One of its lesser- known effects is to turn olf any cur- rent CMD command and halt dumps to a printer. The diar- acters are the left and right haces.

How can 1 locate this symbol on my keyboard? Lake Tahoe, CA A: When you see them, notice lie words between the braces, hisiead of the braces, press the key named between them.

Rather, when you reach that spot in the line, press the key labeled CLR. If your computer is in Graphics mode, as it is when first turned on, the result will look like a heart within a box.

Many printers are not able to prop- erly print the braces, but if yours can, you can print out both the left and right braces as foHows: Invari- ably, though, I have to triake corrections, and when I list the lines, they appear unab- breviated.

Have I scrubbed the abbrevia- tiom by listing at id editing? Although keyword ab- breviations are quite handy, they have almost nothing to do with the amount of memory used by Basic statements.

In this form, each Basic keyword requires only one character space in memory. However, since full words arc needed when you list the program, the List command expands tokens in the listing itself into equiv- alent Basic words, without altering the program in memory.

Between lines 57 and 58 of a program I typed, there is a lirie It is out of sequence, ami I cannot delete it.

Hotv can I get this line out of the prograttt? Rather, it is part of the line before it in the listing. If you list the preceding line 57 in your case , your spurious line 32 will also appear.

To get rid of it, edit oi retype the preceding line I can think of two common causes for this problem. First, many new pro- grammers forget to press the icturn key after correcting a Basic program line on the screen.

Until you press re- turn on that line, tlie correction will not become part of your program. Another common cause h a pro- gi-am that accepts all kcy.

Even if your printer can back up one space, it can- not erase characters it has already printed. In tliis case, the solution is to modify the Get loop used to accept input data in your program.

Use with data cassette included , or with terminal programi software, available at computer stores. Cedit card cuslonwra can order by phone, 24 hours 3 day.

Phono L- Sign Here. S5 lor each plus S3. Similarly, to use it on drive 1 of a dual disk drive, cliange the in line to a 1.

Orcasionaliy, when I attempt to formal a disk on my , my disk drive cranks for a minute or so and then the red light comes on, indicating an error. When I attempt to format the disk again, the drive sometimes produces the same error and sometimes fonnats the disk properly.

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Pascal users can pick up programming tech- niques that will translate to other lan- guages, such as C, Ada, and Modula This clarity leads to small compilers that produce robust and dependable code.

The Pascal defini- tion is small enough so that you can describe it in logical charts in just a few pages. With this powerful chart- topping compiler for the IBM PC, you can write full-blown applica- tions like word processors and cus- tom databases.

Like many buzzwords, it has been overused to the point of losing its meaning. Instead of thinking about a main loop that performs certain func- tions, think of related sets of code and data as objects.

Objects have code executable subroutines and data. At the bottom is the root. Up from the root are the frunk and all of ttie branches.

Finally, at the end of the branches are the leaves. The objects at the root level delegate instructions to the trunk- level objects, which in turn send messages to the objects at the branch levels, which then pass those messages, finally, out to the leaves, where objects are at their most specific, performing tasks like writing to the screen and disk access.

Good examples of objects and their relations can be seen in any windowing envi- ronment. A window is an object with attribute?

If you use your mouse to expand or shrink the window, a piece of code is executed that resizes the window. The code then updates the variables in the data section of the object.

This window object may or may not interact with other objects. If it oveilaps other windows, then those windows get a message and update themselves according to the new circumstances.

Objects can also have subsets. The usual terms are parent and child objects. If a window has buttons or editable text fields, these are its children.

The children can go on to have other children. To get a picture of how this wrarks, imagine a dialog box with several choices. If you pick choice A Close All Other Windows , the child selector button A passes a mes- sage to the parent that it has tieen selected.

The parent then alerts all other windows that they need to close. These are just simple examples of OOP. Leinecker Pascal has taken root very quick- ly.

Like other computer languages, Pascal is dynamic. It constantly changes to encompass new ideas and techniques. Object-oriented versions are beginning to appear that extend the language from a procedural lan- guage into one that combines the best features of procedural and object- oriented languages.

Pascal borrows ideas freely, just as other languages borrow from Pas- cal. Some people argue that Pascal is restrictive because it frowns upon such poor programming practices as GOTOs.

The GOTO statement en- courages code that is often called spa- ghelli because its logical flow resembles intertwined noodles. Such programs are difficult to read, to de- bug, and to learn from.

Instead, Pascal encourages modu- lar programming, in which you test each procedure and function as you design and code it. This separates the main program loop from the low-level chunks of code that actually perform the data manipulation.

You can take either a top-down approach in which you design the program without wor- rying about the nitty-gritty details un- til the end or a bottom-up approach, where you start with reusable low-level code that can be joined to make a va- riety of programs.

Terminals that push pilots beyond their limits. Terminals where dogfights are played out with sweaty realism. Terminals where futuristic aircraft designs are modified in just seconds.

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When IBM first began to develop its line of personal computers, these chips were the best available at a reasonable price. Intel processors were engineered specifically for a productivity-oriented machine.

Specialized instructions make text handling and data manipu- lation fast and compact. Each register has a spe- cial forte; using each register for its designated purpose makes for fast and efficient code.

Pro- grammers can take advantage of some instruc- tions that are a fraction of the size of comparable sets of instructions on other microprocessors.

The newer Intel models, such as the and the , no longer have the memory re- striction of K, and they average a clock speed of 25 megahertz. The Intel family is getting better, faster, and more powerful.

Its dominance in the market underscores its effectiveness. IBM must have picked the Intel chip by accident. After all, these chips bear little similarity to the mainframes and minicomputers that IBM was used to building.

If you crash an MS-DOS program, you can most likely blame it on the screwball architec- ture of the It requires an and four megabytes of memory.

The was modeled after minicomput- ers, while the Intel processors were modeled after calculator chips. The also has some character- istics of bit machines the higher models, like the and , are full bit processors.

Even the lowest-numbered model chip is capable of multitasking and can access several megabytes of memory with no limitations. It has eight bit data registers and eight bit address registers, with a great number of addressing modes.

The newest processor in the line, the is fully compatible with the , and it features a built-in floating-point math unit, an optimized inte- ger math unit, and two 4K high-speed memory caches.

The SAC bombing competition will decide die issue. Sixteen precise missions, or those you construct with the "Mission Design" feature, will determine who goes home with military aviations most coveted prize — the Curtis E LcMay trophy.

Miss a drink, scnib a miision. The besl in enfcrtainment software. If you think this fea- ture is unnecessary, remember that even the smallest typo can wreck your program.

In the long run, those tech- niques will reward you handsomely. It has all the elements of a full-blown language and performs wonderfully.

If you type FD 50, that command draws a line 50 pixels from where it started. With a few other simple commands, you can also tell the turtle to pick up its pen, change its pen color, and hide itself from view.

That com- mand tells the turtle to go 50 units forward and then turn right 90 de- grees. The manual then suggests hav- ing students type the same command again,.

If this excercise seems trivial, think again. Sequencing is an impor- tant part of our formal thought pro- cesses. It helps us figure out what should happen before it happens.

After the exercise with the square, students soon move on to stars, rec- tangles, and pentagons. Looking ahead and anticipating future events becomes a habit.

Kids begin to ask questions and experiment with ideas of their own. Logo also lends itself well to cre- ative writing.

Logo is extremely versatile. Students can illus- trate the development of an insect, for example. They can list facts on one side of the screen while displaying the insect in its larval stage on the other side.

The factual information can be updated to reflect those different stages of growth. After the entire life cycle has been dis- played, the program is ready to begin once again.

What would beginning program- mers learn from this exercise? They would learn how to coordinate text with graphics and to integrate abstract and visual information.

You can do these exercises with any language, but what makes Logo so special is its ease of use. Drawing is a snap: Putting text on the screen is also simple, as is inviting user interaction.

Because Logo is a structured lan- guage, you can write subroutines that you can use over again. Structured programming fosters logical organization because you must plan each subroutine so it can be used as many times as possible.

It forces you to write flexible procedures — no need to write six subroutines that do almost the same thing. Instead, you can pass or set flags so that a single routine can satisfy the needs of six slightly different circumstances.

It has an important role to play for beginning programmers, whether part of a school curriculum oral home. Its valuable lessons in critical thinking and logical structures go a long way toward promoting the skills that our kids will need in the next century.

John Kear- ney is a systems and program analyst and freelance writer based in Plymouth, Minne- sota. Programming Environments of the Future Computers are showing up at every turn.

Your microwave, VCR, CD player, and car probably all have computers in them, Do these programmable appliances hold the key to the future of programming?

The VCR bases its actions upon your data in much the same way that a DOS command bases its actions upon the parameters you give it.

But if programmable appliances fail to affect general-purpose computer program- ming, metaphors like the onscreen desktop which originated in the Xerox PARC labs have had and will continue to have a profound effect on programming.

Already some languages allow you to coordinate slide shows and sound effects by connecting icons pictorial representations of data objects or devices instead of by typing text commands.

These languages will expand as we begin to use computers with multiple processors. Many applications, notably databases, word processors, and spreadsheets, al- ready include complete programming languages.

And macro programming has be- come an art in itself. Further programming breakthroughs will occur as companies make their applications more flexible and, at the same time, easier to use- Artificial intelligence Al promises to bring us the most user-friendly programming environments.

Al researchers are already working to make software that understands English. A lot of hobbyists did learn to program in BASIC, and some even took the brave step to learn assembly language.

All the good commercial programs were written in machine language, especially the games. Only a few could afford a disk drive.

No one had even heard of a hard drive. Nowadays, people buy comput- ers for a reason. They buy them to play games. We all know that most home computers arc used for games — even if they were bought for other reasons.

Whereas people used to buy one computer to fit all their needs, now ihey buy two separate computers: The game machine is often technologically superior, but people like to make a distinction between the fun-loving box that plays games and the serious box that works in the home or office.

These days you can use a com- puter without knowing how to pro- gram it. A few years ago, a program merely had to be functional and pow- erful.

Now programs have to be easy to use. This de- vice has had more than its fair share of blame for making programs easier to use.

The Mac system had the right idea with a one-button mouse. Then there are the PC mice with three but- tons. We could mount our keyboards on trackballs and — voila!

I can just see myself blinking my left eye for selection and the right eye to pick up a menu. The typical American personal computer programmer writes pro- ductivity applications in C.

The typi- cal European programmer writes games in assembly language. But why is there a difference in pro- grammer styles on the same com- puter in different countries?

The BBC computer was signifi- cant for England because it was de- signed to promote computer literacy.

The goal was to agree on a computer that most people could afford so the BBC could offer high-quality computer- instruction TV programs for a large audience.

In addition to introducing a lot of people to computers, the BBC computer had the more interesting ef- fect of teaching people how to pro- gram in machine code.

Built into the very powerful BBC B. This meant that nearly every school kid was writing assembly language programs at an early age.

This also explains why there are an awful lot of English computer pro- grammers under 20 when their Amer- ican counterparts are probably in their mid- to lates.

I think its fair to say that 90 per- cent of the people who buy computers now do not program them, whereas a few years ago, it was probably closer to 50 percent.

People are now brave enough to use the technology without having to understand it, and comput- ers are rapidly becoming a useful gad- get on the scale of the VCR or cellular phone.

With computer hardware, RAM prices, and user interfaces im- proving all the time, I would expect that, over the next few years, the next innovation will be speech recognition.

This would make software even easier to use. Similarly, the introduction of HyperCard on the Mac and similar programs on the Amiga make it easier for laypersons to write trivial programs that do what they want.

These graphical programming lan- guages will help close the gap between programmers and users. I look for- ward to the day — not far away — when nontechnical users can make their own arcade-quality videogames, con- trol their house appliances, draw pic- tures and hang them up on the wall, and create video presentations.

Who needs to program a computer anymore? Unfortunate- ly, programming these little jewels can give even the best programmer a mi- graine headache.

With these two programs, you can create custom TSRs that provide online help for any subject imagin- able. It loads your compiled help file into memory so you can call it instantly — anytime you press ALT-H.

Who would want to use this pro- gram? Anyone who needs instant help with PCs, specific software, or proce- dural guidelines.

Just compose the ap- propriate text, compile it. Levy Adventure Development System You find yourself in a dark room, where something smells faintly sour.

Suddenly, a scream shatters the still- ness and the door closes behind you. If mystery and adventure get your juices going and your heart pounds when you hear a sudden scream, this pro- gram is for you.

Adventure Devel- opment System, you can create your own adventure games. All you need is a word processor or text editor, some quiet time to develop ideas, and a fer- tile imagination.

You can also create special scenarios for social, church, and school settings. Your most frequently asked questions can now be answered with- out your having to leaf through a ref- erence book.

All the major topics are covered. The editor commands are readily available in case you forget how to de- lete a line or pause program execution.

The command syntax is listed with all the necessary information, including parameters and optional arguments. ASCII and color-code charts for instant reference.

BASIC programmers, both nov- ice and advanced, will find this tool too good to pass up. But with hard work and long hours, many professional programmers have learned to coax some respectable sounds from the PC.

This package includes an editor and a set of routines written in assem- bly language. First, you create the sounds with the editor. Then when the sounds are fine-tuned, you can save them to disk and add them to your latest creation.

Your ears will be glad you did. Each SharePak disk includes two to four programs plus complete documentation for one low price: Or point and click if you have a mouse.

Change attributes, back up disks, customize parameters, execute DOS commands, and more without ever accessing tie DOS command line. I want to share in the savings.

Rease indicate how many disks of each format you d like: Please indicate the disk size desired: Batch programming, though very simple when compared with C, Pas- cal, or other languages, is a powerful and functional way to solve particular computing problems.

The compact language of batch programming encompasses only a few commands, but it makes use of sound programing concepts. This introduction to batch pro- gramming illustrates a few key com- mands and combines those com- mands into a small program you should find useful.

Starting a New Batch Think of a batch program as a list of commands. You can automate this same se- ries of steps with a batch file that looks something like this: Check your manual for instructions.

All names of batch files must end with the. This sends a signal to DOS telling it how to handle the file. The first part of the filename is up to you, but for convenience, keep it short and memorable.

Some examples are GO. Batch File Parameters Replaceable parameters bring added power to batch files. A parameter is a supplemental command that follows a program name.

Parameter passing is easy to in- corporate into batch files. BAT example, you would change the middle line: When you execute the batch file by typing w resiime.

If your word processor or any other program supports multiple windows, you might be able to use more parameters. If no parameter is passed on the command line, the batch file ignores those references.

At Your Command A batch program exchanges infor- mation between you and your com- puter; options are presented, instructions are given, and a proce- dure is carried out.

Batch program- ming is nothing more than setting up this exchange. Your DOS manual offers additional detail about these commands and describes a few others, but our discussion here will get you started.

When you in- voke a batch program, its commands are echoed onscreen as your computer executes them. To sup- press the command display, start your program with the command echo off.

The S is only for users of DOS 3. Run word processing program. Display the Games Menu. A must for strategy lovers.

Wilmage Challenging word game for players. Power Poker Addictive strategy game that adds a new dimension to the traditional game of poker.

Fun for one player or with friends. Buiger Blostez Have fun in the futuristic fast-food business with this challeng- ing, frantically paced arcade-style game.

Block Out Colorful and delightful strategy game that everyone in the family will want to play. Includes expert and beginner levels.

QikSeive Fling those fries I Sling those shakes! A frenzied arcade-style game for the stout-hearted only. Woimbuiner A game of skill packed with arcade action.

A challenge to the ad- vanced arcade gamer, yet easy enough for beginners to enjoy. Pennsylvania, and Nortti Carolina add appropriate sales tcot lor your slate.

All orders must be paid in U. For delivery oulside the U. You can also use ECHO to print instructions or error messages or to ask the user for additional infor- mation.

Here are some examples. If you want to write a longer line, use a car- riage return before the line reaches the right edge of your screen and continue the line as a new echo statment.

Re- member to precede each line of your message with the ECHO command. Use REM statements to describe certain sections of your batch program.

You could use this command to create a delay when your user needs to change disks or to stop processing when your pro- gram is about to begin a lengthy or po- tentially damaging procedure.

That way you have an opportunity to break out of the batch program. ECHO This will take several minutes. This permits you to write programs that can handle more than one even- tuality.

GOTO is used in conjunction with a label. To create a label, type a co- lon followed by the label name. IF gives your program decision- making power.

You can use it with GOTO to perform a specified task when certain conditions exist. IF can be used in three different forms, but the following example illustrates only one of them: In most cases, at least one of the strings comes from outside the pro- gram in the form of a replaceable pa- rameter.

If the user already knows which program to run. Running them will just print a brief message on your screen. Then, the third line checks to see whether a parameter was passed when the batch file was execut- ed.

If a parameter was passed, the pro- gram jumps to the label that matches the parameter. If no parameier was passed, the program jumps to the menu section, from which it presents information to help the user make the next decision.

The purpose here is to sec if a parameter was passed and. We achieve this goal by testing for a null, or empty, string. To circumvent this batch file lim- itation, borrow a lesson from algebra: Add the same thing to both sides of an equation.

In the case of line 3, we can add parentheses. Since GAMES and are not equal, the program moves on to line 4, which also uses the value of the replaceable parameter to jump to the appropriate part of the program.

This prevents your computer from running all of the programs listed in your batch file one after the other. AT pro- gram sparks your interest in batch files, you can examine the examples in your DOS manual and the batch files that come with commercial software.

You can learn a lot from those examples. Trepidation soon gives way to bravado as you peek inside abandoned tents in the village. A spell weavers power is not for the sheepish.

Or weave straw into gold. And eventually find the means to leave the island itself. Seeking the arcane knowledge possessed by the Great Guilds, accumulated and refined and repeat the notes.

After con- since the dawn of time. Loom is more than a mas- terpiece of fantasy storytelling. No cumbersome keystrokes, text parsing, maze mapping, or inventory manage- ment intrude to break the spell.

We even transport you to the Age of the Great Guilds before you turn on the computer. Where detailed animation, high defini- tion graphics, startling special effects and stirring musical score combine to create a total environ- ment.

Captivating you from the opening scene to the final climax. And your quest for a truly magical fantasy adventure is finally realized. X and Turbo C 1.

Pascal is an integrated program-development system witti editor, formatter, Pascal interpreter, and visible program execution. The program works as a stand-alone package or with other software.

For the tie- ginner, Or. Pascal offers online command help and compre- hensive error checking. Eco- C88 also offers selectable se- mantic error checking for finding subtle bugs.

Lahey provides free technical sup- port, an electronic bulletin board, and newsletters. There is an unconditional day money- back guarantee.

The compiler also features both a small and a large mem- ory model and an integrated command line interface. The package also offers sensing and support.

Mark Williams offers a day money-back guarantee. QB Advi- sor is a hyper ext-based online help system that lets you copy and paste program examples into your oiwn code.

An inte- grated debugging feature is also included with the package. Microsoft offers a day money-back guarantee. Microsoft QuicitC Version 2.

It features an interactive on-disk tutorial, online help with cross-refer- encing, and context-sensitive help. Microsoft of- fers a day money-back guarantee on QuickC.

Microsoft QuiclcPascal Version 1. Quick- Pascal offers Express, a computer-based training sys- tern featuring an online tutorial and hands-on self-paced les- sons.

In addition, Quick Advi- sor supplies online help and a reference system. With Quick- Pascal you can copy and paste prewritten code from Quick Ad- visor into your program.

Also, two levels of menus aid the be- ginner. Full Menus accesses the complete range of Quick- Pascal capabilities for the ex- perienced user.

Another feature of QuickPascai is Smart Editor, which color- codes keywords, user com- ments, user code, or data, allowing the programmer to spot errors easily.

This stand-alone package features a full-screen text editor, a syntax checker, and a source-code generator for interactive screen displays and for automatically main- tained index files.

Also, Person- al Cobol offers an interactive source-level debugging-and- analysis function. The package contains 54 function-key-driven help screens.

In addition, the Power C book includes a step-by-step tutorial and many example programs. In ad- dition to the standard features, this package offers a number of extensions including dynam- ic strings, single- and double- precision floating-point arith- metic, an assembler-level interface, and separate compi- lation of program segments.

Moreover, Prospero Pascal offers a high degree of portability. Digitalk offers a user newsletter and both phone and bulletin board support.

Digitalk offers reduced-price product up- grades and a day money- back warranty. Digitalk offers a day money-back guarantee and reduced-price product up- grades.

Product support in- cludes a user newsletter, technical phone support, and bulletin board support. The package features a full-screen editor, mouse sup- port, and a visual trace for easi- er debugging as your program runs.

Pascal has adopted extensions from the C 4- 4- object-oriented programming language, includ- ing static objects, object con- slants, static methods, con- structors, and destructors.

This package also features an on- line tutorial and a hypertext help system with copy and paste. The interpreter integrates ttie full-screen Editor so tfiat programs are edited and then directly executed.

Also, com- prefiensive diagnostics explain errors and mark ttie source statements where the errors occurred. The package also in- cludes a runtime library, the Watcom video debugger with mouse support and loop opti- mizations for even faster code.

In addition, Watcom C7. Documentation includes on- line help, reference cards, and the C Library, C Language, and Graphics Library references. It also includes UNDO, which reverses the effect of any command.

Solution Sys- tems offers free telephone support and a day money- back guarantee. Features such as unlim- ited indices, automatic up- dating of all indices, multiple access modes, file and record locking, and full transaction support with commit and roll- back let you take charge of MS Windows.

Sage Software of- fers a day money-back guarantee. Borland s Turbo C or Turbo Pascal. The package fea- tures mouse handling and full keyboard support, pull-down menus and pop-up message boxes, disabled entries and di- vider lines, and shadowed menus to create a 3-D effect.

In addition, the package includes two utility programs: CurEdit and Color Customizer. CurEdit helps you create custom cur- sor icons and associate them with any mouse button or key combination.

Color Customizer lets you specify color via an on- screen palette. This utility enables you to cre- ate horizontal and vertical menu stmctures onscreen.

The package fea- tures expanded memory sup- port that allows editing of larger files, selective-line- editing capability, and en- hanced programmability.

Layout also fea- tures CASE technology, hyper- text databases, and graphical user interfaces. A Layout video- tape is available for S9.

Microsoft Macro Assembler Version 5. The package includes an online tutorial and help file to aid newcomers in debugging their Macro Assem- bler programs.

The package also includes four manuals: The package features multiple overlapping and resizable windows. Object also helps you build your pro- grams from object types such as stacks, linked lists, and vir- tual arrays.

TurboPower offers free technical support. The package features example application sources to be used as skele- tons for new programs. Abrax- as Software offers a day money-back guarantee.

Borland Green Hill Rd. Or try the Analog Edge" with two-way, switchable buttons. Most of the companies with major language products have support areas where you can ask questions about specific products.

Washington Sl Rockville MD voice modem If you have a GEnie account, you can check out the popular programming areas listed below. To get to these areas, either type the keyword and press the Enter key or type m followed by the page number and the Enter key.

Most book- stores carry these or comparable titles. Box 90, Carmel, IN ; ; Here are several magazines that ca- ter especially to programmers and programming issues.

Box Hightstown, NJ Dr. No complex maneu- vers on the keyboard to call up your information. Just pop-up menus that make it easy to start using Arriba the day you load it on your computer, "Arriba is a strong and flexible package, one that just may meet your information-manage- ment needs head-on.

Arriba helps you manage people, tasks, and events. Organize your thoughts, ideas, notes, schedules and contacts into cohesive action plans.

Cross reference names and phone numbers to task lists, task lists to project folders, project folders to status reports, and more.

If you can remember any part of any note, Arriba can find it. Available ihrough finir dealers naiionwide. Amtajs-a—Tidcmark of Good Software Corp.

However, Moriey Matters automates much of the entry process, saving you from much of the drudgery of old-style debit and credit posting.

While the program is easy to use, you may need help learning some unfamil- iar accounting concepts and terms. For instance, good will, accrued SUTA, accumulated amortization, eq- uity, and retained earnings are some of the terms that sent me scurrying for an accounting text.

You can set up and maintain fi- nancial records for up to 99 compa- nies with the program. You can also create your own.

You can change, add. Working your way through the menus and submenus is a snap. A tine at the bottom of the screen tells you what your next action should be.

Context-sensitive online help is avail- able with the press of the Fl key. You can track up to different accounts with this program, which should be sufficient for even the larg- est home business.

You distribute in- come and expenses for each business by writing checks and receipts. Each entry can be distributed among up to 20 accounts.

For instance, a crcdit- You can set up SuperTrack cards to help keep track of individual project costs. Then the gas station ex- pense could go into the account called Automobile Expense.

The check-entry screen is similar to a regu- lar checkbook. You enter the date, payee, check number, amount, and a memo on a check window at the bot- tom of the screen.

The upper half of the screen shows checks you have en- tered. On the right arc two columns, each displaying an account number and name.

These arc the accounts where you distribute your expenses. You can scroll through all of the ac- counts using the arrow keys. A unique feature is.

Just place the expense in , then go back later and redistribute it. When you enter a check. Money Matters subtracts the check amount from your bank account and adds it to the distribution account.

Your updat- ed bank or credit-card account bal- ance is then displayed. You enter income as receipts. Entering check and receipt infor- mation goes quickly.

Money Matters beeps to reassure you that you have entered the information correctly. When 1 wrote a check to my mortgage company, the account name read Mortgages-Current matur.

I was unsure what that abbreviation stood for. These cards hold name, address, and year-to-datc balances on up to customers or vendors.

Several other timesavers offer shortcuts for finding and entering data. The feature that really sets Mon- ey Mailers apart from other financial- tracking software is SuperTrack.

SuperTrack lets you customize Money Mailers to fit the unique aspects of your business. You can track costs, commissions, labor, inventory, or any number of other business-related re- cords with this feature.

Best of all, you can add infor- mation to SuperTrack cards with a few simple keystrokes at the same time that you record checks or receipts, Suppose part of your income comes from rental units.

For example, create one card foradvenising, one for cleaning, and so on. As you record your bank deposit of total rents received, you can pull up the cards for individual units and track how much money is received from each unit.

When you write a check for cleaning services, pull up the card for the unit you had cleaned and record the expenditure. The SuperTrack card will keep a run- ning tally for each unit.

This allows you to track how much it costs to rent each unit, SuperTrack can handle many tasks. You can define up to three card types per business.

You might create a card definition for inventory, one for job costing, and one for business tax- es. You can store up to individ- ual cards of each type.

You can tally dollar amounts: You can print detailed reports of your transactions to the screen or printer. These reports can cover the current month, the entire year, or a specified range of dates.

You can enter and print invoices at any time. Money Mailers provides three types of invoice forms: The default is inventory.

The invoice func- tion automatically calculates sales tax, payment-due dates, and discounts. Money Mailers allows you to set up two different printers for printing checks and receipts.

For example, you could use a dot-matrix printer for printing checks and a laser printer for invoices. Print options allow you to choose whether to print return ad- dresses or memo lines on your checks and to print the distribution amount on your check stub.

You can print checks and invoices one at a lime or in batches. When printing checks, Money Mailers prints the date, check number, amount, payee, and memo on the check stub.

Where do you get checks? The precheckwriting report screen tells you to phone your local Safeguard forms distributor, who offers a full line of forms guaranteed to be com- patible with Money Mailers.

I would like to have seen a sample check with the stub attached included in the package, to make sure the checks were right for my business.

There are two manuals: The pages are chock-full of care- fully worded information, including a detailed index and clear screen pic- tures.

The layout is attractive. Almost all the questions that I had were an- swered by the manuals. After you register the package, your first call for help is free.

After that however, you must either buy a service contract called The Works or go for the A la Carte option and pay for individual calls.

A la Carte is charged on a per-call ba- sis: Xritd to call the A la Carte line with a technical question, we reached an answering machine that stated that we would have to wait two days for a return call due to the high volume of tech-support questions.

Your enhanced night-vision reveals your glowing jets, jnemy is ignoraftt opyour approach. CA a44 j"3jlBM, Tandif ind cmnpafiljles 5.

There were many reasons for this, not the least of which was that there were few useful commercial programs at the time.

Al- most all of the early com- puters came with one common piece of software: In fact, it took the Macin- tosh to break the spell; the first Macs were packaged with a word processor and a graphics program!

Apparently Apple thought people wanted to use computers as productivity tools, not just as Tinkertoys for the mind.

How- ever, even the Mac now comes with its own programming environment, HyperCard. The fact is that personal com- puter users, for the most part, like to tinker with their machines.

Unlike fixed-purpose computers, such as ded- icated word processors, the program- mable computer has the power to be adapted to do almost anything you want.

It all boils down to the natural desire we have to become masters of our environment. This was made clear in a big way when VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program, originally appeared on the Apple II.

Within a very short period of time, people who had never seen a financial report before were playing whai-if games with cor- porate and household budgets.

Their ability to create their own spreadsheet analyses gave them power. This power came from a blend of two different skills: Yes, the design and con- struction of a spreadsheet is computer programming.

One would be hard-pressed to find a way to create a spreadsheet that worked like an arcade game, for example. Over the years, many people have tried to find a universal meta- phor that could be used as the basis for a more general programming lan- guage.

Unlike spreadsheets whose problem domains are restricted and unlike tra- ditional languages whose syntax re- quires a new way of thinking.

HyperCard applications present the user with a collection of possible actions that can be taken at any given time. A menu item can be selected, a button can be pressed, text can be entered in a field, the cursor can be moved with the mouse, and so on.

Depending on the action chosen by the user the stimulus , the computer produces a response, such as a text presentation, an animated sequence, or the printing of a document.

Unlike traditional languages whose pro- grams are written in one body of code, HyperCard programs are attached to the objects themselves.

In other words, a button may contain a script instructing the computer to dial a telephone. Whenever this button is pressed, the computer will dial a num- ber.

You would start by making a list of all possible user actions, such as pressing keys on the keyboard or clicking a mouse button.

If an action was detected, the computer would use a subroutine to perform the desired task and then re- turn control to this master loop that would be constantly on the lookout fornew user inputs.

This rough structure for pro- grams works as well for the design of a videogame as it does for the creation ofa word processor.

River combat, where an enemy ambush lurks around any bend, up any canyon or by any bridge. Uncoil twin M60 machine guns and grenade launchers on renegade Viet Cong, Panamanian rebels and the murderous Colombian drug cartel.

Polygon-fill aiiimation and bit-map graphics immerse you in the steamy reality of 3 swel- tering combat zones. Twenty mis- sions lie ahead, in countries where the mortar fire is as thick as mosquitoes.

Visit your favor- ite retailer or call The best in entertainment software. But whether you use a laptop or simply throw your desk- top computer into the back of the car, it pays to plan ahead.

Before you hit the road, call your insurance company. Are missed wages and consequential losses covered if your software is damaged or lost?

But watch out— the premiums can be ex- tremely high if you want to protect the value of the data or presentation. The most important rule of traveling with your computer is to keep it with you at all times.

Like all valuables, it should be kept on your per- son. The moisture from the dew could cause a short circuit the next time you turn your computer on.

One simple trick has saved more than one computer from being lost forever. Ail the Right Moves When you pack your system, be sure to use a good heavy-duty carrying case.

Most laptop computers are built into their own carrying case, but an additional layer of protection is important in case your computer encounters rough handling.

As a general rule, soft cases are designed for specific computers and have just enough room for your computer and a few accessories.

On the other hand, soft cases are relatively easy to carry over your shoulder and will fit under most air- line seats. Hard cases usually have more room than soft cases and arc useful for shipping or for trade shows, where your computer will be carried by baggage handlers.

Whichever type you choose, the case should be relatively plain and nondescript — thai means no fancy logos or designer name labels. Eye- catching bags attract attention and potential theft.

Rather than take along a full set of manuals, you can take along the cheat sheets that came with your soft- ware. You might even purchase a set of second- party cheat sheets if none were included with your programs.

In addition to your critical programs and data disks, you should also bring along a couple of utility programs including file- maintenance, disk-optimizer, and disk-repair programs , just in case.

Small modems are about the same size as your mouse and use very little power and suit- case space. A modem can also double as a substi- tute printer.

Fax machines have spread across the world even faster than computers, and virtually every hotel and business has a fax machine with a ded- icated phone line.

You can create your document, save it on your floppy, and upload it to your on- line service. Check ahead of time to see which kind of printer will be available at your destination.

If you plan to use a laser printer, check to see that your software is compatible. Instead of disconnecting your printer cable Pack Your Bags This fs a rough list of the items I keep ready for unexpiected trips.

You should adjust the list to suit your own requirements. Not only will you not have to disconnect your printer cable each time you travel, but a ribbon cable is lighter and smaller than a normal printer cable.

X Marks the Spot If you travel by plane, allow extra time for the airport security guards to hand-search your com- puter. Do not let your system be x-rayed.

The magnetic coils in the transmitting tube could also erase your floppy disks. This may involve crawling on the floor to reach an electrical outlet and extra lime if there are a lot of people waiting.

The December Pan Am flight from London to New York was destroyed by a bomb disguised as a large radio, and security pre- cautions have since become more stringent.

For a while, there was a proposal to eliminate all carry-on electronic components, but the FAA backed down because of the large number of lap- top computers used by travehng business people.

The fear that interference from a computer might send a plane off course was addressed by Ameri- can Airlines. It tested dozens of computers, cal- culators, dictating machines, and even radio- controlled toy cars and determined that none of them interfered with their onboard systems.

During the critical takeoff and landing periods, your computer must be put away, along with the rest of your carry-on lug- gage, for additional safety.

It wins the cost-effective award. MoneyCounts is CPA designed, easy-to-use, menu-driven with on-line help, and requires no accounting experience.

Yau can even export directly to lotm T, or Quattro. Over , users have decided in favor of MoneyCounts! Order today and see for yourself!

S or ii hard disk. Works with all prinfeis and moniluts. Tjrtdy t ,ir[i artd Compaq Cimipulcr C! If you look around, you can usually find a modular phone jack or at least a place where you can hook into the phone Hne.

If you remove the screws, you should see either a modular jack or a set of four screws with color- coded wires. There are a variety of commercially available modular jack adapter kits for the four- screw terminal block, but I prefer a homemade adapter consisting of two alligator clips attached to a modular phone cord.

Just connect the green wire from your modular cord to the green screw and the red wire to the red screw. Most hotels, especially the newer ones, have modular phone jacks.

Local access numbers for timesharing services such as Telenet and Tym- net will also be different. If you have to change the phone numbers of your telecommunications program, be sure to write down your old num- bers and put them in a safe place so you can reset them after your trip.

Time Machine Another travel problem that most users forget about is the effect of time-zone changes on their computers. Your system clock is still accurate — but only for your home location, not your desti- nation.

When you save a file to disk, your oper- ating system records the time, but that time could be off an hour or more.

When you get back home, you should reset your clock for the right time zone and reset your dialing macros for the proper dialing prefixes and phone numbers.

E Philip Chien is a Titusville, Florida, computer writer with more than 1 2 years of experience with personal computers, Sixteen Under Ten: Laptops Go on a Diet Each year, laptop computers become smaller and lighter.

Watertown, CT Irvine Blvd. These files can be dumped to the printer, but I prefer reading them onscreen. I now use the MORE pipe com- mand, which pauses on each screenful of text.

For example, suppose you want to display a file called READ-. You can use this trick to read any text file one screen at a time. Some programs that come on multi- ple K disks will run much smooth- er with a hard drive.

However, if the files take up fewer than three full K fioppies, you can often copy them onto a 1. The problem is, how do you get the files onto the 1.

Repeat this for the second and third floppies. If all of the program disks fit on one floppy, you can generally run the program hy following the instructions for hard disk usage.

Just substitute any references to drive C: You can also use this technique to re- duce the number of floppies on your desk: Just copy two or three different programs onto one 1.

Ranging in function from disk buffers to mini word processors, TSRs can make your day-to-day PC work a lot easier. I know — I load tons of them in mv.

The problem is, all of those utilities eat memory. Detkjet double mono HP. Will Alien Breed 3D follow in its footsteps next month? Still reigning supreme with the CD 32 faithful Good taste abounds.

Fulfiling the cheap gaming maxim of "Crap does sell". Straight to number one upon release. Top Budget 1 Indiana Doner. Formula 1 Team Manager is a unique simulation that gives you the chance to run your own Formula 1 racing team, and take on the likes of Lotus, Williams and Benetton.

To find out more call Ascon on and live that dream! He found it when he reviewed Breed 3D. This Christmas is going to witness the biggest fight the Amiga, Amiga owners, and Amiga developers have ever seen since the Amiga concept became reality.

That this fight could alter the course of home computing history is beyond question. A grave scenario indeed. And one that must never be allowed to happen.

It succeeded because it captured the imagination of the imaginative, the creative, and the visionary. It succeeded because it was the computer of the people.

And most of all, it succeeded because the people loved it. That it can fight back and again win its rightful position of prominence is going to be more difficult than ever before.

External forces with more money and bigger marketing budgets than you could throw a Third World country at will be out in full Stormtrooping jackbooted media imperialistic force.

Fight back But the Amiga can resist. Amiga owners talk to each other more than any other gaming fraternity. Sound 9 out of 10 Convincing, eerie, scary, and frightening.

Payability 9 out of 10 Balanced, poised, atmospheric, intuitive, fantastic. Overall verdict They said people bought PCs to play Doom.

People should buy A s in droves to play Alien Breed 3D. One of the finest Amiga games ever. Tell them how good Alien Breed 3D is.

Tell them what you like about it. But most of all, ask, plead, beg, grovel, implore and petition them not to leave the Amiga market.

The market needs them to produce more games like Breed 3D. The market needs more games like Breed 3D. For Breed 3D is quite simply one of the best games ever to appear on the Amiga, It exploits the AGA hardware, injects it with euphoric gameplay and, at the same time, radiantly displays the potential that lies in the heart of a well-coded A Be prepared to have your imagination captured as the game immerses you in the dangerously harsh world of the Breed and their foul brethren.

Feel the adrenaline invigorate your senses as you frantically switch between out-and-out fearless aggression and cringingly fearful, trembling paranoia.

Yes, Breed 3D does all that, plus "Pchoom Kchack" said the double-barrelled, pump-action shot gun as H killed a baddie.

Put it down to the perfect balance of design, aesthetics, gameplay, intuitive control, involvement, consistency, internal dynamics and fun.

The layout of the sixteen levels is believable enough in an Alien kind of a way. There are no pointless dead ends. There are extremely atmospheric, submerged areas.

And, Doom-beatingly, the levels have different floor layers requiring the traversing of stairs, ramps, lifts and other obstacles to access them.

Frustratingly, though, there is no map to access. But, by way of compensation, changes in wall and floor textures in the various sections helps compartmentalise the levels and keep everything at a manageable, memorable level.

The choice is yours Married to the design of the levels is an intuitive control system, offering maximum flexibility and degree of choice: The joystick is okay, but wilts slightly in front of the might of the keyboard.

They often conceal caches of ammo, medi-krts, weapons, or all three. It can be difficult to spot them, but not impossible. First person perspective limits what you can see.

I Trading as carefully and as quietly as possible, you aim to take a quick peak round the corner. The monsters inhabiting the levels are various and present their own little problems in choosing the most efficient method of dispatching them.

They run about a bit, dodge, weave, and attack you at every opportunity. It means the difference between success and death. The weapons sound wonderful when fired.

Although the double barrelled shotgun acts as a pump action - quirky. A sounding success While on the subject of sound, it deserves a special mention.

It enhances and expands an already bristling atmosphere. A quick glance over the shoulder reveals skullduggerous plans afoot Turn round quickly and blast him.

To finish off, the way the game makes use of accelerator cards deserves a special mention see our enhanced gaming feature starting on page With an accelerator fitted, everything becomes silky smooth and can easily live with the Dooms and Marathons of the world.

Convince Team 17 that their plans to leave the Amiga market would be a tragedy for them and Amiga owners throughout the world.

Buy Breed 3D and convince them. Make Breed 3D the smash it thoroughly deserves to be. These features help maintain running speed. On an unexpanded it runs smoothly.

Busy Ledger 2 has several key areas as follows. This month, we pay homage to the man briefly and sift through the facts, mumbled half-lies and contentious Mafia-related conspiracy theories to bring you our deeply personal account on what we think happened, according the subject the reverential degree of sombreness and respect that it deserves.

So take time out from the previews Ubi Soft returning to the Amiga shocker! And who else could have possibly done it? POW Like some sort of alien fl only the juiciest bits of world history.

In days of old, we used lo call Oliver Reed. Oh, how we laughed. Football, golf, cricket and darts, I have played and enjoyed on the Amiga - but pinball?

To play all the other games involves some measure of organisation and effort both physical and financial - yes even darts , but pinball?

Now, I will readily admit that if you are three years old Thomas is aimed at age three upwards , you are unlikely to find yourself with a pound in your pocket in the centre of a large town with time to kill.

If you do, you are lost, or your parents have abandoned you. Find a policeman immediately. The only way a ball can be lost is if it manages lo go between the two flippers.

Lots of fun for, you know, kids. There are four tables Thomas, Percy, Dames and Toby , multi-player options and it all works reasonably well - the ball rolls towards the flippers, you hit it and it bounces around the table until it goes out.

However, there is an alternative. Have you thought about investing in a sturdy box, or crate? Choo and, indeed, choo.

Sound 7 out of 10 Jaunty and lively. Should please most kids. Addiction 6 out of 10 Mildly diverting in a soporific sort of way.

Playability 7 out of 10 Mostly on the right track, but some of the shots are virtually impossible. Overall verdict Hardly the ultimate pinball experience for kids, but pleasant enough nevertheless.

Aminet 7 Aminet CD 7, doled August , con- tains more than 1 gigabyte uncom- pressed of software in thousands of archives. The current edi- tion has a special focus on images.

The 45 MB current edition has a special focus on 30 MB modules. Many modules are of a very MB high-quality and feature 8 voices. There are only three tracks and the learning curve on those is incredibly steep, but at least there ore two high-powered cars.

Dropping in these two simple fellows would have improved the shebang considerably. They could still not, however, mask the fact that Virtual Karting is a game that the Amiga does not need.

Conveniently forgetting for the moment that there is a dearth of karting games on the market, I would suggest that any supporter of the racing genre will already have a game in their collection which is considerably better than this.

Good ol f F1GP. Unfortunately, though, the game looks better than it plays. Our picture grabber had all kinds of trouble with this game.

Virtual Karting is fully texture mapped and this, it seems, is its USP that will be Unique Selling Point - and who left that damn marketing bible around.

Sadly, it really is not a wildly impressive visual experience. But this game offers no real feeling of speed. You can watch a speedo in the bottom, left-hand corner of the screen and see the old KPH steadily rising, but back in the hotseat you still fqel like a pedestrian, There are two ways you can view the races: The 2D option is a straight overhead perspective, while the 3D view has four slightly different angles.

So Virtual Karting is best played in the highest of the 3D views, where you can get a reasonable sensation of speed while at the same time traverse the bends with as much confidence as the rather difficult to get the hang of control method allows.

In the 2D mode, you can play half screen and the actions are hot pace-wise, though a magnifying glass would be a bonus.

Back to the control method. You sway this way and that, oversteering and bumping off course on to the texture mapped grass which slows you to snails pace.

One would imagine karting around a Parisian park to be incredibly exhilarating. So actually the mouse control is probably best. The programmer, Fabio Bizzetti possibly an Italian fellow is obviously dedicated to the Amiga, and the work on the graphics and pre-race fly-bys is tremendous, but Virtual Karting is a triumph of design over content.

Three courses and two cars cc and cc - with no championships or leagues to compete in. But, hey, the texture mapping, the frames per second.

Addiction 4 out of 10 Erm. Payability 5 out of 10 Dreadful method of control - easily remedied. Overall verdict Virtual Karting should be virtually carted off for a quick gameplay fit.

Jmrigei can De taved in? Release 2 5 software now infludw.. Now works with composite PAL. Select any video source with S-VHS or composite output.

This could be your camcorder. Once grabbed, simply download and view the full image on your Amiga screen. Use the image with your favourite word processor; DP or graphic package.

Steve McGill certainly knows his winners from his losers. Check out our regular page for which games to go for and which to avoid at all cost. A game within a game, you battle through various game genres, blasting all and sundry.

Trading is the best way to succeed - importing and exporting. Oh, it sounds dull, but very few games attain the same high standards as those of Colonization.

Normally, we at AF stash scores with abandon if the programmers fail to offer a two-player or link option, but this is so tidy, all is forgiven.

Sure, some of the holes are ridiculous, and it takes time to learn the ins and outs. But Steve Bradley liked it and he must be right, right?

Anyone in their right mind should avoid at all costs. It looks and plays absolutely horribly and should be made to suffer from mutually assured destruction.

So, from an advertising point of view. Subversion boasts hundreds of thousand of different combinations of play and ten levels of difficulty.

Poker games abound in the Public Domain and many of them are far superior to this, both in presentation and the style of Poker played.

Not even the crudely digititised graphics and speech can save it. The main character can change into any of ten creatures. Also included is an editor and advanced editor to create your own dungeon scenarios, as well as that all-important link-option, enabling you to hunt down and kill your best friends.

It can be fast; it can be slow; it can be in between. Requires a bit of thought on the best way of overcoming seemingly insurmountable problems, but the ability to change into any one of ten creatures certainly helps.

It even includes a label printer, and keeps a log. There is also provision for VAT. Stores text, pictures, modules, samples, etc.

All are AG A and rather good. Excellent graphics He a director of a rich car company! Good quality Excellent Pacman! Archived lor HDonly Nice puzzle..

Careful, the tit tor is collapsing! A Midi controller program Converts wicrd formats lo standard Prouucker formal Noleon. More features but is a demo version.

Lots of programs for Internet users More useful programs for the nei Give yourself a very colour! I Make your own diskmags P. Programming language with only 5 commands.

Good llps 2 Great shareware word pro. Capt Scarlet, etc See our disc catalogue for more of everything! ART H I jinpinj!

Skeleton Krew, Skidmarks 2, and more. Man Uld, Naughty Ones. No clicking on Icons. For a full catalogue just send 3 x 25p stamps. Includes a full list of Education Demos.

Ihf I utt h UnrHunrih P. Kxtrrcm Old style piano ClatMi. Add 25p per disk iHistaee. Acid 50p per dusk. Games include Manic Miner. Jet Set Willy, The Hobbit.

Slnp Poker, Danger Mouse. U odium Atic Aiac Rrver raid, Barbanan. Hundreds of Adutt jokes. Subjects include Animals, Anatomy, Babies, Men. Trees, Reptiles, Insects, Xmas.

Symbols Royalty Dinosaurs, Plants. Medieval Military, Monsters, Music Sports football, golf. Transport, Trains, War and more. Virus killers, memory utilities.

Emulators, Business applications including Wordprocessing database. Subjects included are Babyton5. Deep Space 9 and Voyager Batman.

Or Who Thundertxrds Robocop. This CD will keep you busy lor months"! Thousands of toots games demo s. Samples, and toads more A!

Anyway, superfluous nonsense aside. Subwar shows promise in simulation land in many ways. Traditionally, submarine sims are a bit bland and boring due to the lack of visual stimulus.

Until now, most of the work was achieved through interpretation of charts and sonar readings. Microprose, being the smart chappies that they are, have played around with physics a bit, ignored the boring bits, where reality intrudes on the fun, and added some blatant unrealities to spice things up.

In Subwar you can see objects around you at any depth; a Head Up Display superimposes the thermal layers of the ocean depths on to the front of the screen.

As such, the game feels like a flight sim taking place under water Underwater lighting effects add to the 3D atmosphere There are two wing men and several submarine tactics to acquaint yourself with.

Prices Pock details may change without notice. Please allow 6 -working days for cheques to cleot. The Highway Code All you need to know. Electronic Tram Set 1 meg Construct own tram set.

El 93 E E States ot Europe Information on this continent. Communicate Learn how to use sign language.

Japanese Tutor 2 disks N Learning disk. The Internet A guide to the Internet.. Jigsaw 2 disks Match the Pieces into a Jigsaw. Birthday History Gives details ot events on your birthday.

Valentines and weddings — Bar Tender not 1. Ultimate Cheats not 1,3 — Hints and Cheats Database tor wine lovers Lockpic V2.

Cop the Lot Pro Updated lottery helper M Sequel to State of Art D All New Star Trek 2 drives. American Star Trek 2 dnves.

Adventure Solutions 2 disks Loads of hints ot commercial games Ad0l Iron Ctads 2 disks Graphic adventure Ad Glassoack II Very good platform game Ad Icerunner N Recom Bnlhant platform game.

Assassins Mangled Fenders. Amiga Boy Console games on Amiga! Addictive graphical platformer A51 1 The Krillian incident no!

Act of War Excellent strategy game Sim Rags to Riches Become a millionaire Sim Uitimated Due — — Pub-quiz clone Sim Amos Criket Owzat Soccer Cards Simplistic league-based game Super League Manager 2 Updated soccer management game The Ultimate Degrader U AGA Klondike 3 disks Excellent patience card game G Sueet-nghter clone Raketz V2.

Pleose I enclose coupon with your order. Or, better still, send it on a floppy disk. Thie, then, ig what playing Gloom is like.

It also looks really neat. Oh, and be sure to play with a CD 52 pad, switching to autofire at tricky moments.

Like all of them. Those with good sense will have prevailed from using it until they had picked up the invisibility bonus from the previous rooms.

Use the scenery - all monsters will happily shoot at covering posts, without it occurring to them to move around to get you.

Never ever leave a level without finding the secret room. In Hell this is a life-saving trick. Curiously, Gothic Tombs is definitely the hardest.

Monsters The monsters in Gloom are of two types - those that bite and those that use guns. Space Marines potter left and right, turn and fire, and potter on.

Exploit this in the obvious fashion. Gloom is fond of putting these fellows in exit rooms; a caddish ploy.

Hurrah, The monsters in Gloom are of two types - those that bite and those that use guns. Back off and lire, fire, liro all Ihe lime.

Beware, though, these chaps are fast, dangerous and travel in packs. They had to get work from somewhere. The robots stand there and pour fire into you.

Merely sidestep across their line of fire and shoot back. If they get in close, instantly sidestep. In their blood-frenzy, they will continue attacking the spot you have just vacated for a vital picosecond.

Whenever you throw a switch in the Gothic Tombs, you can be assured that new Raptors have been created. Retrace your steps with care.

Back away from a Ghost room, therefore, and wait in the corridor for them to emerge before you. A sort of super- marine, faster and more accurate than the vanilla variety.

It is highly inefficient, but immensely rewarding, to sprint into a room of them and then run, turn and sidestep continuously in a type of "Last Waltz of the Apocalypse".

If ambushed, flee backwards to draw them into single file. A floating, gnashing thing that sucks you in and holds you while it and its cohorts bite off your head.

Dam down the back key to hold your position and propel the gunfire of justice into it until it sees the error of its ways. Replaces the Raptors as the exit-ambushing monster of choice in the Hell levels.

Big, trigger- happy and startlingly purple, Demon Lords are, strangely, easy to beat. Get behind a post plenty are provided and peek out to take the occasional potshot.

If they outflank you, merely move around the post. Hey, we have to leave something of the game for you to play. There are also booby-traps aplenty, including the gorgeously over-the-top spinning wall just follow it around - it can only hurt you by squashing you against the sides of the room and the sliding panther blocks.

These injure on contact and are evilly placed. Secret rooms Gloom plays largely fairly with its secret rooms.

Look out for unique wall patterns, or very suspicious dead ends. Secret doors can usually be spotted through differences in wall texture. These are entertaining games of mini-Defender that award an extra life when you complete a wave.

The Space Hulk machine is hidden in level 1. Circle the bonus and open the far wall. Power-ups A disappointing aspect of Gloom is that its appallingly powerful weapons Remember to be diligent about searching out secret rooms and power-ups.

Some denizens are just too powerful to take on without being tooled up. Keep a lab on the power of your weapons by looking at their colour.

It could save a life. The wave motion cannon For those who have sensibly invested in a CD 32 pad with autofire, here is a repulsively unbeatable firing technique.

Position yourself at the head of the corridor, or in the mouth of the room, and switch on the autofire.

Now, by tapping the shoulder buttons you will jink left and right, sending an inverted sinewave of death into your enemies.

The carnage is almost unbearable. These, then, are suitable tips to aid you in making the world safe for democracy and Alien Breed 3D. Should you find them unnecessary, perhaps you would be interested in a few challenges?

Completing the whole of Gothic Tombs without losing a life, for example if you can just do the Raptor Pit without being killed, you are becoming attuned to your inner self, or something Or, just possibly, by playing the Deathmatch game.

The carnage is horrible. Steve McGill looks at a couple of re-released offerings. Here we go, here we go Which Is a bit slack, if you ask us.

Ideally played with at least three players, participants start the game by either bidding against each other, or taking turns at buying players.

As soon as each participant has fulfiled the minimum squad requirements, the game begins in earnest. Players are positioned in the squad and then sent out to play.

As it stands, there may be more than a few fanatics willing to buy this. Amiga Format readers should know better than to buy this, though.

Even at this lower price. For there is a huge swell of ground support for Tactical Manager and its sequel.

Kompart play host to a huge-ish play by mail version of the game. Fans swear by its attention to detail, its believable results, and its reams and reams of statistics.

To jump from one section of the game, such as team selection to the finance section, can take anything from three to five clicks of the mouse.

This may not sound much, but it quickly becomes wearisome in an extensive session of play. Especially when you consider it in terms of the look of the game.

It looks horrible, cluttered and spreadsheet-like. On the plus side, Tactical Manager 2 offers some of the most extensive options and tweaks that you could imagine in a footie management game.

Even at the lower price. But I can just about understand why it has such popular appeal. Impressive but incredibly ugly. Throttk k Rudder Control.

This mag contains naughty words! Hallmark Trading Folate, Fourth May. I I W tAfAllv. Accounts, Organisers, Address Books. Tons of new stuff! Contains demos, anims, mods etc!

Go Netsurfing with the supplied tools! Every month Steve McGill goes through mountains of PD disks and every month he is amazed by just how good some of them are.

Despair no further, help is at hand. The number of sentences is user- elected. The program informs the typist after each sentence if they got it right.

Finally, when the typist finishes the allotted sentence number, the program summarises the performance - the time taken to complete the exercise, the number of words tvped per minute, the number of correctly and incorrectly typed sentences.

Crazy sentences abound with Typing Tutor. There are three levels of difficulty in all. Push And Pull is a winner. Jimmy Sommerville against Flopsy.

Rogues Gallery of Creatures to meet. Bonus blocks with special powers help you in the quest to gain the highest score.

Most of them, however, are useful pointers towards organisations that can help you out. No of Disks Price Two 95p per disk Freeware In ancient Rome the Forum provided a space for citizens to come togethet and share their views on life, politics, and love.

It also gave them somewhere to hang around on a Satnrdav until football was invented. Nobody talks aboul the Amiga theie.

Step up the disk mags with then cvber-Forum philosophy and techno literate execution. The Word is one ol the more readable mags currently active on the scene.

Mostlv devoid of humour, the "What do you mean, Steve Bradley approaching? Very easy to use. Word makes up for it in the interest and subversion department.

Some of the features COW material that, if printed, would witness the disgrace of Formal and tec us taken off die shelves of WH Smiths immediately.

It breaks up families. It takes money away from charities. And it causes an untold amount of suffering and misery all round the country.

Called Pro-Football, it helps punters with Pools predictions. That is, the user inputs all of the upcoming football fixtures and the program predicts which matches it thinks are most likely to be drawn.

Get seven or eight of these predictions right and you can win pots of money. Therefore, the more useful help you receive, the better. Pro-Football provides a multitude of assistance.

More importantly, the predictions are believable and consistent. This bit is the most fun. In practical tests using the fixed odds option about three quarters of the predictions turned up trumps.

Ali claims that by updating all results, either midweek or Saturday fixtures, the program becomes even more accurate.

Fixed odds or Pools. Three button presses enter just about any team, but it can usually be done in two. The likelihood and strength of the result prediction is displayed by the number of balls on the display.

I bet you she drinks Carting Black Label. As such, the charge for the disks and postage seems a bit severe for 13 images. You could get a copy of Select or Empire for that.

In other words, it felt as if you were driving on ice in a car with a floored accelerator. But first, the game itself.

The land mass inside the play area is laiidomh generated and. The number of hits it takes to destim. So, hurrah for liiniifd flexibility.

The control system could have been made a lot better it. Nevertheless, despite being virtually unplayable.

The mora letters written to Sublime. Software, the more likely they ate to listen and change the game plav.

Of course, if you wanted to extend metaphors and stretch credibility, you could look upon PD 1 louses as the Nodes and Servers of a slower, less efficient, temporally based Internet.

Might not appeal to everyone, but nice to have anvway. CiassAction is a little program whose sole existence is to ease the labour involved with OS 3.

Il l-Label will print labels with a picture of your choice. SaeGret, we suspect, has been programmed by a rogue Scot.

It lets you get rid of the annoving grev border round the screen and turns it black. Noi wonderful, not exciting, but useful to someone somewhere. It displays part of a pubsereen in a window on another pubscreen.

It displays even file within a directory, including other directories and the files contained within them. Probably of most use BO programmers. TinyMruT displays memory usage to keep you informed, surprisingly enough, of your memory usage.

Nf surfer max not appeal to even-one. Ouickshot Starfighter 1 E8. Optional upgrades include keyboard and disk drive allowing use of software and an MPEG video playback card allowing video CDs to be played on the CD r.

All three arc packed with useful features like the dedicated Windows driver and a built-in sheet feeder.

Please return the coupon or phone 0 1 1 1 1 for details. A division-of Star Micronics Co. This new spreadsheet from Softwood puts many PC packages to shame when It comes to power and eate-of-ufe.

Graphics fans will enjoy our review of Imagine 3. Parents will be Interested m our review of 10 out of 10 Science. Graeme Sandrford takes a look at 3.

John Kennedy introduces a package to get you going. The modem itself is a standard external modem: Early versions support "V.

V34 is the true All too often Amiga owners are left to struggle in confusion. Secondly, the design of the space-age.

KI is referring to which Function. I was impressed with this little black box. The choice of software includes terminal software. Fido mailing software hopelulh Spot or another mail manager will be included too and some Internet-related items.

The Internet software is Demon orientated, so expect extra work if vou are using a different Service Prouder. Remember too that this software is freely available and once you get the modem working you can download as much of it as you want.

All too often Amiga owners are left to struggle with a copy ol the PC program Ifrlrina Lite and a confused feeling about what to do next.

At least with this pack "what Hi do next" means pulling out a floppy and being able to actually use your little black box.

Although exciting, as modems go this one is quite good. The speeds I got in tests were very respectable indeed and I certainly got true Y34 connects with all the modems I called.

Comparing it to the Courier which is almost twice the size only a few points stood out. The V34 implementation seems good and data zips around at more than 3, bps on a good line.

Graeme Sandiford gets calculating. The Amiga has always been well catered for in most areas of serious software, with the exception of one - spreadsheets.

The Amiga has nevct really had a spreadsheet that could even begin to hold its own against the killer applications available on the Mat and.

However, it was still not a complete match for programs like Excel and Uuus Born out of necessity. Final CaU has features that were undreamt of by most serious Amiga- users.

This is thanks to the continual honing, over tin re years, of the program bv its programmer, who created it because there was simply no program in existence on anv platform that could meet his needs.

Graphics card owners will rejoice over the fact that the program can use anv available screen so vou can make full use of the extra resolutions made available by most graphics cards.

You are also given control over the louts that are used. Some of the more powerful features include the ability to open several views of a project which, in turn, can contain up to a maximum of sheets.

You can cut and paste between single or multiple sheets making it easy to create links betw een just a couple or all of them.

A welcome feature of the interface is that prettv much every command or function is available as a menu item or keyboard short-cut. This means that if you open a window or requester, all of the other windows and the main screen remain active for editing.

Perhaps one of the most powerful features of the interface is its unlimited undos and redos. A small box on the corner of the screen displays the number of changes that have been made to a document.

When it comes to entering your data in cells Final Cole has an abundance of powerful and novel tools to make doing so easier and more flexible.

Oils can contain numeric, string, time, date, currency, percentage, Boolean and scientific data types. These features can make a real difference in creating a spreadsheet, or a printout of one, that can be quicklv understood bv someone else.

Final GflaV has a respectable array of formula types which form the backbone of any complex spreadsheet, or group of spreadsheets. There is also support for siring concatenation which enables operations involving cells with text strings.

The program also supports infinite values without returning an error. To help encourage such ones to dabble in the creation of more complicated spreadsheets, Final Calc has a system that guides beginners through using a formula.

As well as the creation of cells, the handling of them has also been given a great deal of thought. Circular references are also handled without generating an error and any recalculation errors can be analysed by referring to a report of the errors and their cause.

Another related feature is the Solve Problem function which can be used to generate a desired value for a cell by altering the values of a specified formula-related cell or range.

As mentioned earlier, Final Calc gives you a great deal of control over how your spreadsheet appears. It is possible to create both 2D and 3D graphs in a variety of different ways, such as bar, line, area, stacked bar, stacked area, pie, B-spline, X-Y, X-Y-Z and scatter graphs.

Once drawn, the graphs can be FioalCalc q flrulCatc: Equal attention has tieen paid to the use of fonts and printing. When it comes to printing, there is extensive control over the way that your spreadsheet will appear thanks to options like Scaling.

Autofit and an incredible printer preview. The printing projects can be spooled and controlled from one of the most comprehensive print spoolers I have ever seen.

There is also direct support for Postscript printers and the generation of EPSs. At long last, serious Amiga-users can hold their heads aloft, confident that the Amiga has one of the most powerful, configurable and flexible spreadsheets around.

J 98 b12 4. Every feature you can dream of, plus many more, make this by far the most powerful Amiga spreadsheet. Nvn Hf haw WAV.

Traa haa tanca aa much maor- majon aa lha raai vanwon. PC and MAC new rclcaic! Tha utaaOa ara complaa. The Assassins vol- ume 1 contains over games, many ready-kwun direct from a superb custom interface.

CD32 compatible Gamers Delrgh! Imagine remains he most populai 3D pat kage on he Amiga: At last a decent object is supplied with Imagine.

This Dodge Viper is quite tasty. However, time has moved on and, although still respected, Imagine h no longer regarded as the best rayiracing package on the Amiga.

Programs like Real 3D and, especially. LightWave have stolen the high-end of ihe 3D market with the net result of Imagine selling ai a substantially lower price than these two.

While this might mean that it is no longer the "bees knees", it is good news for beginners and keen amateurs, since for under 1 00 quid they can gel hold of a fullv-featured 3D rendering system.

However, the overall interface has not been redesigned drasticallv, which would have been a bit much to ask from 3. Pretty much all of the changes thai have been made to the interface have filled holes in the way Imagine operates.

For example, ii is now possible to perform a quickrender from an attributes requester, nllher than having to rlose down the attributes window, performing a quickrender and then opening the window again to make a t hange.

There aie now two rows of user buttons available and Imagine has finally embraced AGA bv supporting colour screens. While these changes may seem rather small, ii shows that Impulse are listening to the demands and wishes of iheir customers and bodes well for version 4.

As well as thetC minor tweaks, there have been some quite substantial additions. A fine example of this can be lound. There is now a new backdrop feature thai enables vou to display a background image in editors to help facilitate rotoscoping - combining rendered with live action.

Vou can now use anini files as global brushes and backdrops, which is ideal for scenes involving flickering images or moving backgrounds, since vou no longer have to load litem in as sequences of single files.

Now you can use Imagine 3. This is very useful since it may be able to spot an error without having to waste time doing a complete render.

Imagines modelling tools, mostly the ones found in the Detail editor, have also been revamped. Selecting object faces has been made easier with the addition of the Pick More and Hide Unpicked tools.

As well as all these basic changes, there are a few more subtle additions, such as some new textures, depth of field rendering and new global effects, like Cepia, Contrast, FadBlack, Melt, Negative, Toon and Solarize, which give you more control over how your renderings will appear.

The arming of Imagine Math so many major and subtle new features is quite surprising since this is only meant to be a small upgrade. Many of the holes thai have plagued the program have been plugged and il has been made marginally more usable, but it is still far from perfect.

There are several glitches that can be a real pain in the neck - but, hey. If this pace of changes keeps up, then Imagine 4 should be an interesting prospect.

Imagine may need all the help it can get with new challengers, like the feisty Cinema 4D, This is one of the demonstration objects supplied with Imagine 3.

Although ft appears rough here, it renders smoothly. Nigel Floyd goes on about films again. Hotspots The best sites in their field, and no mistake Where are they going?

Looking ai things from another angle, though, if you need a CD-ROM diive, vou mav as well have one that can lx- used as a personal CD player.

The case is designed to lit snugly around either the separate CD player, or the complete unit with velcroHovered access holes -a perfect CD companion for a laptop.

Features-wise, the drive is a multisession-capahlc, double-speed mechanism. By plugging the stylishly curved. There are two SCSI ports on the back, just in case you need a through connection for other drives.

Power Computing are supplying the drives with a convenor from the rather more popular way SCSI connector as used by interfaces such as the Squirrel.

The Base module also includes a further space for batteries. You are going to need an additional eight penlight batteries to provide the correct voltages for SCSI transfer.

Fortunately, there is a mains adaptor port, which can be used with either the standalone player, or the SCSI block. This is certainly the must viable pin table CD solution we have seen so far.

As well as the CD-ROM drive and the mains transformer, the Media Vision pack includes a rather excellent padded carrying case, a Squirrel interface and a set of "multimedia" speakers, which connect either into the CO-ROM drive with an extra lead , or into the back of your Amiga.

A standard double speed drive, but sustained transfer rates are impressive. Why not purchase your requirements direct from the manufacturer?

In fact, il wis only the ItiK model which made how much fun lh. As it happens, the disc contains emulators lot the Atari ST. Acorn Archimedes, Mac and P ;is well.

There are also instruction on how to convert vour old Speccv games, However, it should lie pointed out that the legal grounds loi rloing this tand the it in general air a bit dudgv although it is unlikely that most ompauies will be too concerned, or lose nun h money.

I soon found mvsell completely engtossed not only in the games, but also the memorabilia, such as pictures of the mac lime and of Sinclair products.

The discs contain pic lures, animations, games, bac kdrop wallpaper, samples, 3D objects, tools, information on vi un- favourite shows and films, games, music and even sci-fi fonts.

Admittedly, the second disc is just full til animations. The images are perhaps the highlight ol the discs with still images from almost even popular sci-fi film and IV series.

In short, these two disc s should keep even the most rapac ious of sci-fi fanatics occupied lor a long time. The contents are still organised in the same wav, with a drawer for each type of software or file, but the disc sports a new front-end and search engine.

Thev are a clever implementation of the Aniigaf. However, the search system is very slow. This is a strong collection and has all the new Fred Fish disks from The Goihoth packs more power than you can possibly need.

A Heavy duty case. A 13 Amp uk approved mains lead. A Full watt output A Also available for cd The saved program will reload and run from the point where it was frozen.

Game trainer feature gives you the power to find cheats within any game.

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